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The Cell. Standard 5: Identify cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems as levels or organization in the biosphere. Standard 4: Describe similarities and differences of cell organelles, using diagrams and tables.

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the cell

The Cell

Standard 5: Identify cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems as levels or organization in the biosphere.

Standard 4: Describe similarities and differences of cell organelles, using diagrams and tables.

Standard 2: Describe the cell process necessary for achieving homeostasis, including active and passive transport, osmosis, diffusion, exocytosis, and endocytosis.

introduction to the cell
Introduction to the Cell
  • You have been taught that Biology is the study of life or that which was once living. So how does life actually begin? It begins with molecules. Those molecules are going to form tiny structures called cells.
introduction to the cell1
Introduction to the Cell
  • The cell is the smallest unit of life. It is the basic structure and function of living things.
  • The living parts of the universe starts off as tiny cells and grows to form our biosphere.
the cell1
The Cell

The cell is the basic building block of life. It it responsible for the many levels of organization that we come in contact with. It is organized as follows:

MoleculesCellsTissuesOrgansOrgan Systems>


This means that molecules make up cells. Cells make up tissues. Tissues make up organs and organ make up organ systems. Organ systems are going to make up organisms. Organisms will make up populations. Populations will make up communities and the communities will make up the ecosystems. The ecosystems will make up the biospehere.

the cell discovery and theory
The Cell Discovery and Theory
  • There are several scientist that are noted as making contributions to either the discovery of the cell or to making of the cell theory.
the cell discovery and theory1
The Cell Discovery and Theory

Notable Scientists

  • Robert Hooke- first viewed the cell under a microscope that he built using a piece of cork.
  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek-microscope maker and was first to view living cells under the microscope.
  • Matthias Schleiden-studied plant cells.
  • Theodore Schwann-studied animal cells.
  • Rudolph Virchow-studied how diseases affected cells.
cell theory
Cell Theory

The cell theory states that:

  • All living things are made of one or more cells.
  • The cell is the basic unit of structure and function in living organisms.
  • All cells arise from pre-existing cells.
two type of cells
Two Type of Cells
  • Prokaryotes- organism that does not contain a nucleus or membrane bound organelles. Ex. Bacteria (Monera Kingdom)
  • Eukaryotes- organisms that contain a membrane bound nucleus and organelles. Ex. plant and animal cells

There are 4 types of eukaryotes.

  • Plant Cells
  • Animal Cells
  • Protist Cells
  • Fungal Cells
cell organelles
Cell Organelles
  • Cytoplasm-the liquid inside the cell
  • Cell/Plasma membrane-made of lipids and proteins, it is the boundary of the cell and control what enters and leaves the cell.
  • Nucleus-control center of the cell where the genetic material is found
cell organelles1
Cell Organelles
  • Cell wall-surrounds the plant cell and is made of cellulose
  • *Ribosomes-very small organelles that are the sites of protein synthesis.
  • Endoplasmic reticulum- system of tubes in the cytoplasm involved in transporting materials
cell organelles2
Cell Organelles
  • Golgi Apparatus (Golgi Body or Golgi Complex)-involved in packaging and distribution
  • *Mitochondria-site of cellular respiration and is the powerhouse of the cell (where ATP is made)
cell organelles3
Cell Organelles
  • Lysosomes-stores digestive enzymes
  • *Chloroplast-site of photosynthesis (where chlorophyll is made)
  • Vacuole-involved in food storage
cell organelles4
Cell Organelles

The plant and animal cells share the same organelles except that plant cells have a cell wall, chloroplasts, and central (large) vacuole.

cell locomotion
Cell Locomotion
  • Cells can either use cilia or flagella to aid in locomotion (movement)
    • Cilia- short hair-like particles found on some cells to help aid in movement and food gathering ex. on the paramecium
    • Flagella – long whip-like projections that aids in movement
cell survival
Cell Survival
  • In order for cells to survive, they must take in nutrients and get rid of waste products, the cells move these substances in and out by either active or passive transport.
active transport
Active Transport
  • Active Transport: the cell requires energy to move substances across the cell membrane in the opposite direction of concentration. It is not spontaneous. Active transport moves substances from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration.
active transport1
Active Transport

2 Types of Active Transport

  • Endocytosis-a form of active transport in which a cell moves substances into the cell.
  • Exocytosis- a form of active transport in which a cell moves substances out of the cell.
active transport2
Active Transport
  • Endocytosis Exocytosis
passive transport
Passive Transport
  • Passive Transport-transport that is spontaneous and does not require energy. Molecules move through the plasma/cell membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
2 types of passive transport
2 Types of Passive Transport
  • Diffusion- the process by which substances move from an area high concentration to an area of low concentration.

Facilitated diffusion-occurs when carrier proteins in the plasma membrane assist in the passage of materials into or out of the cell.

  • Osmosis- the movement of water through a semi-permeable membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
  • There are 3 types of osmotic solutions
      • Isotonic Solutions-has equal concentration of substances both inside the cell and outside. The cell will not gain or lose water.
      • Hypotonic Solutions-causes the cell to swell, moves water into the cell.
      • Hypertonic Solutions--causes the cell to shrink, moves water out of the cell.
reproduction in cells
Reproduction In Cells

Cells can reproduce either by sexual or asexual reproduction.

  • Sexual Reproduction- reproduction using a sperm and an egg cell.
  • Asexual Reproduction- reproduction in which and organism produces another organism identical to itself or without the use of a sperm and egg cell.
cell division reproduction
Cell Division (Reproduction)

There are two types of cell division: Mitosis and Meiosis

  • Mitosis- a type or reproduction in which the cell divides and produces 2 daughter cells that are identical to the parent cell. (asexual reproduction)
  • Meiosis- a type of cell division in which the parent cell will divide twice and produce 4 gametes (sex cells) (sexual reproduction)
stages of mitosis
Stages of Mitosis





Telophase & Cytokinesis


Animated Mitosis Cycle

  • Interphase
  • Prophase
  • Metaphase
  • Anaphase
  • Telophase & Cytokinesis
interphase occurs before mitosis begins
Interphaseoccurs before mitosis begins
  • Chromosomes are copied (# doubles)
  • Chromosomes appear as threadlike coils (chromatin) at the start, but each chromosome and its copy(sisterchromosome) change to sister chromatids at end of this phase





Plant Cell

Animal Cell

Photographs from:

prophase 1 st step in mitosis
Prophase 1st step in Mitosis
  • Mitosisbegins (cell begins to divide)
  • Centrioles(or poles) appear and begin to move to opposite end of the cell.
  • Spindle fibersform between the poles.


Sister chromatids

Spindle fibers


Plant Cell

Animal Cell

Spindle fibers


Photographs from:

metaphase 2 nd step in mitosis
Metaphase 2nd step in Mitosis
  • Chromatids(or pairs of chromosomes) attach to the spindle fibers.


Spindle fibers


Plant Cell

Animal Cell

Photographs from:

anaphase 3 rd step in mitosis
Anaphase 3rdstep in Mitosis
  • Chromatids(or pairs of chromosomes) separate and begin to move to opposite ends of the cell.


Spindle fibers


Plant Cell

Animal Cell

Photographs from:

telophase 4th s tep in mitosis
Telophase4th step in Mitosis
  • Two new nuclei form.
  • Chromosomes appear as chromatin (threads rather than rods).
  • Mitosisends.





Plant Cell

Animal Cell

Photographs from:

cytokinesis occurs after mitosis
Cytokinesisoccurs after mitosis
  • Cell membrane moves inward to create two daughter cells – each with its ownnucleus with identical chromosomes.
the cell cycle





- Cell Division

The Cell Cycle




asexual reproduction
Asexual Reproduction

Mitosis is asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction is reproduction without the use of a sperm and an egg cell.


Three reasons why cells reproduce by asexual reproduction: 1. Growth 2. Repair 3. Replacement

Skin cancer - the abnormal growth of skin cells - most often develops on skin exposed to the sun.

Cells that reproduce by asexual reproduction reproduce constantly.

forms of asexual reproduction
Forms of Asexual Reproduction
  • 4 Types of Asexual Reproduction
    • Fission- asexual reproduction in which a organism splits into two equal parts.
    • Budding- asexual reproduction in which an organism can grow another organism from the top, bottom, or sides of the organisms body.
forms of asexual reproduction1
Forms of Asexual Reproduction
  • Regeneration- asexual reproduction in which an organism can re-grow missing body parts
  • Fragmentation- asexual reproduction in which an organism can be broken or cut up and those parts will grow into a totally new but identical organism.
stages of meiosis
Stages of Meiosis
  • Interphase Metaphase II
  • Prophase Anaphase II
  • Metaphase Telophase II
  • Anaphase
  • Telophase
  • Interkenesis
  • Prophase II
diploid and haploid cells
Diploid and Haploid Cells
  • Haploid- having a single set or (n) number of chromosomes
  • Diploid- having two sets or two times the (n) number of chromosomes

EX. Humans have 23 pair of chromosomes or 46 total (diploid) chromosomes. n=23 (haploid)

sex cells
Sex Cells

Sex Cells are also referred to as gametes.

  • Sperm cells and egg cells are called gametes and contains one set of chromosomes “n or haploid”.
  • Once the sperm fertilizes the egg it becomes a zygote (somatic cell) with double the number of chromosomes (diploid).
sex chromosomes
Sex Chromosomes

XX chromosome – female

XY chromosome - male

  • Meiosis is sexual reproduction.
  • The purpose of meiosis is to produce gametes (4) in preparation for reproduction. (These gametes may sometimes referred to as the daughter cells of Meiosis.)
  • Meiosis causes variation which means that no organism produced during meiosis will be identical.

Meiosis Animation