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The President. The Executive Branch. Terms to Understand First. Bureaucracy – complex organization Can be applied to the Federal Govt. and many other things TVHS is also an example Budget Deficit – when the Federal government spends more than it makes. Intro to the President. History

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The president

The President

The Executive Branch

Terms to understand first
Terms to Understand First

  • Bureaucracy – complex organization

    • Can be applied to the Federal Govt. and many other things

      • TVHS is also an example

  • Budget Deficit – when the Federal government spends more than it makes

  • Intro to the president
    Intro to the President

    • History

      • King Issues

        • No repeat of King George

  • Article II of the Constitution

    • Where the requirements, powers, and responsibilities of the Presidency are explained

  • Basics of the president
    Basics of the President

    • Requirements:

      • Natural born citizen

      • 35 years old

        • Youngest elected JFK (43) Youngest served Teddy Roosevelt (42)

    • Resident of the US for at least 14 years

  • Salary & Benefits

    • $400,000 per year + $50,000 expense allowance

    • Air Force One, Secret Service, live in White House, & Pension (First Lady gets $40,000 per year)

  • Electing the president
    Electing the President

    • Electoral College – group of people chosen from each state (and DC) to elect the president and the vice president

    • Each state has a specific number of electors

      • Colorado has 9

  • The popular vote in each state determines how many of the electors vote for each candidate (president and vice president)

  • The president and vice president become the people with the majority of the electoral votes

  • Presidential terms
    Presidential Terms

    • Presidential term is 4 years

    • Originally no term limit was enforced

      • Washington only served 2 terms so most presidents followed his example

      • FDR served 4 terms

  • 22nd Amendment

    • Passed in 1951

    • Limits the president to 2 terms or 10 years

  • Powers

    • Commander-in-Chief

    • Make Treaties

    • Appoint ambassadors, Supreme Court Judges, and other officials

    • Enforce Laws

    • Veto

    • Grant Pardons

      • Pardon – grant legal forgiveness for a crime, prevents or ends punishment

    Unofficial powers
    Unofficial Powers

    • Executive Privilege –the right of the President to keep information secret from Congress to protect national security

    • Executive Agreement – an agreement between the President and a foreign government with out approval from the Senate

    • Imperial Presidency – a presidency characterized by greater power than the Constitution allows

    Checks on presidential power


    Approve/reject presidential recommendations

    Override Veto

    Sets guidelines for how the President can implement things

    Creating or eliminating departments


    Interpreting the constitution

    Overruling any “unconstitutional” action by the president

    Checks on Presidential Power

    Presidential power and public opinion
    Presidential Power and Public Opinion

    • The power of the President will depend a lot on how the public feels about him and what he is doing.

      • President’s are going to have more power (and support) going into a war

        • Think WWII and FDR

    • If a war lasts too long the President will loose that power

      • Think of Vietnam

  • This same idea will transfer to any policy or action the President takes during his time in office

  • The cabinet
    The Cabinet

    • Cabinet – group of top advisors to the president.

      • Includes the VP, the heads of the executive departments, and any other advisors the President may choose

  • Members

    • Selected by the President approved by the Senate

    • Secretary of State, Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary of Defense, and Attorney General are the most important

    • Members can not hold any other elected office

  • The cabinet cont
    The Cabinet cont.

    • Organization

      • There are 15 executive departments, each department head is part of the cabinet

        • Ex. Department of Homeland Security and Department of Education

  • Function

    • To advise the President and help in one or more of his roles

      • Ex. Secretary of State helps president plan and execute foreign policy

  • Foreign policy
    Foreign Policy

    • Foreign Policy – plan for how the US will deal with other countries

      • Purpose is to protect US interests

  • Major Players

    • The President

      • Has the primary responsibility of deciding Foreign Policy

      • Uses the State Department, National Security Council, CIA, and Department of Defense

    • Congress

      • Declares war and approves treaties, funds, & appointments

    • Other Groups

      • Domestic Groups, Public Opinion, Mass Media, Other Countries, Foreign Companies

  • Foreign policy cont
    Foreign Policy cont.

    • Tools of Foreign Policy

      • Diplomacy – the process of reaching a peaceful agreement with other nations through discussion

        • Diplomat – representative of a government who conducts relations with other governments

    • Alliances – potential enemies know that countries in an alliance will protect each other, can promote trade

    • Foreign Aid – can be used to acquire assets or as a promise to stop certain behavior

    • Intelligence – information about what other governments are doing and what they are capable of

    Presidential succession
    Presidential Succession

    • Presidential Succession – plan for what happens if a President is unable to perform his duties


    Vice President

    Chooses a new VP

    Speaker of the House

    This is only temporary…a new election will be called to permanently replace the President and VP

    President Pro Tempore

    Order of succession
    Order of Succession

    • VP

    • Speaker of the House

    • President Pro Tem

    • Sec. of State

    • Sec of Treasury

    • Sec. of Defense

    • Attorney General

    • Sec. of the Interior

    • Sec. of Agriculture

    • Sec. of Commerce

    • Sec. of Labor

    • Sec. of Health and Human Services

    • Sec. of Housing and Urban Development

    • Sec. of transportation

    • Sec. of Energy

    • Sec of Education

    • Sec of Veterans Affairs

    • Sec. of Homeland Security