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Reproduction - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Human. Reproduction. Sexual Reproduction in Human. testis. ovary. meiosis. meiosis. sperms. eggs (ova). fertilization. zygote. embryo. foetus. baby. Male Reproductive System. vas deferens (sperm duct). epididymis. Click here. testis. Testes.

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PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Reproduction' - jerome

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Sexual Reproduction in Human






eggs (ova)






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Male Reproductive System

vas deferens (sperm duct)


Click here


Testes l.jpg

  • For production of male gametes (sperms)

  • For production of male sex hormones

Click here

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  • For temporarily storage of sperms

  • During copulation, muscles of epididymis contract to release sperms

Click here

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Testis and epididymis


vas deferens (sperm duct)

sperm tubules

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Male Reproductive System

seminal vesicle

secrete seminal fluid

prostate gland

Cowper’s gland

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Functions of Seminal Fluid

  • To provide a medium for the sperms to swim

  • To activate and nourish the sperms

  • To neutralize the acidity in the female reproductive tract






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  • Erected during copulation for insertion into vagina

    • Dilation of arterioles causes the erectile tissue of penis become turgid

    • Muscles of epididymis contract

    • Semen is squeezed from the penis to the top of vagina

      • Ejaculation

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Female Reproductive System






Video of


Click here

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Functions of Ovary

  • For production of female gametes (ova/eggs)

  • For production of female sex hormones

Click here

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  • Carries the ovum forward by

    • the beating action of the cilia on its inner surface

    • the contraction of muscles of oviduct

Click here

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  • The release of an ovum from an ovary

Video of


Video of


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Menstrual Cycle

  • Once in about 28 days

  • The uterine lining becomes thickened 14 days after ovulation to prepare for the fertilized ovum to implant in it

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Video on change in

uterine lining

Menstrual Cycle

  • Day 6 - 14

    • Lining becomes thicker with increased blood supply

    • Day 14 : ovulation

  • Day 14 - 28

    • Lining remains thick to ready for implantation of fertilized ovum

  • Day 28

    • No implantation of fertilization ovum

    • Uterine lining breaks down; menstruation starts

  • Day 1 - 5

    • Menstruation starts

    • Uterine lining decreases in thickness to a minimum

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Events Happened after Fertilization

  • Ovum is fertilized at the oviduct

  • Fertilized ovum is carried to the uterus by

    • the beating cilia on the inner wall of oviduct

    • the contraction of muscles of oviduct

  • After reaching the uterus, the fertilized ovum fixed firmly onto the thick uterine wall


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Development of Human Foetus




umbilical cord


amniotic fluid

Video on foetus


Click here

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Functions of the Uterus

  • During embryo development

    • Protect the embryo

    • Provide a constant environment for the embryo to develop

    • Allow placenta to attach on

  • During birth of baby

    • Push the baby out by muscular contraction

Click here

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Functions of the Amniotic Fluid

  • To keep the foetus moist to prevent dessication

  • As a water cushion to

    • support the foetus

    • allow it to move freely

    • absorb shock

    • protect the foetus from mechanical injuries

  • To reduce temperature fluctuation

  • To lubricate the vagina during birth

Click here

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The Placenta

oxygenated blood from mother’s artery

deoxygenated blood to mother’s vein


umbilical vein

umbilical artery

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Functions of the Placenta

  • As a place of exchange of materials between mother and the foetus

  • For secreting hormones

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Adaptations of the Placenta

  • Finger-like villi

    • to increase the surface area for efficient diffusion

  • Maternal blood and foetal blood flows in opposite direction

    • to speed up diffusion of materials between them

  • Maternal blood capillaries and foetal blood capillaries are separated by thin membrane

    • to shorten the distance of diffusion of materials

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Adaptations of the Placenta

  • Maternal blood is separated from foetal blood by capillary wall

    • to prevent high pressure of maternal blood to break the delicate foetal blood vessels

    • to prevent harmful substances to enter the foetus

    • to prevent clotting of maternal and foetal blood if their blood groups are incompatible

Click here

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The Birth Process

  • Onset of labour

    • Uterine muscles begin to make rhythmic contractions

    • Contractions gradually become stronger and closer

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The Birth Process

  • Uterine contractions causes amnion to break and amniotic fluid to escape out of the vagina

  • Muscular contractions push the foetus head first through the vagina, and the umbilical cord is cut and tied

  • Further contractions push the placenta out of the body

    • “After birth”

  • Dilation of cervix allow the head of the foetus to pass through

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Could you survive

after birth without

the care of your


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Parental Care

  • To increase the chance of survival of the young

  • Mother feeds milk to the baby

    • Milk provides the babies with a balanced diet

    • It also contains antibodies which defend the babies against infection

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Birth Control

  • Human population increases exponentially

    • leads to storage of resources

    • problem of pollution becomes more serious

    • overcrowding

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What can we do?

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Rhythm Method

  • Prevent copulation during 7 days before and after ovulation (fertile period)

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  • Male and female condom

  • As a barrier to prevent sperms from entering the vagina

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  • Fitted over the cervix

  • To be used together with spermicides

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Contraceptive Pills

  • Contains hormones which inhibit ovulation

  • Must be taken regularly

  • May have side effect

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Surgical Methods

Tubal ligation

Cutting and tying of oviducts


Cutting and tying of sperm ducts