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CHAPTER 2: MANIPULATING QUERY EXPRESSIONS. PRINCIPLES OF DATA INTEGRATION. ANHAI DOAN ALON HALEVY ZACHARY IVES. Introduction. How does a data integration system decide which sources are relevant to a query? Which are redundant? How to combine multiple sources to answer a query?

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CHAPTER 2: MANIPULATING QUERY EXPRESSIONS


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    1. CHAPTER 2: MANIPULATING QUERY EXPRESSIONS PRINCIPLES OF DATA INTEGRATION ANHAI DOAN ALON HALEVY ZACHARY IVES

    2. Introduction • How does a data integration system decide which sources are relevant to a query? Which are redundant? How to combine multiple sources to answer a query? • Answer: by reasoning about the contents of data sources. • Data sources are often described by queries / views. • This chapter describes the fundamental tools for manipulating query expressions and reasoning about them.

    3. Outline • Review of basic database concepts • Query unfolding • Query containment • Answering queries using views

    4. Basic Database Concepts • Relational data model • Integrity constraints • Queries and answers • Conjunctive queries • Datalog

    5. Relational Terminology Relational schemas • Tables, attributes Relation instances • Sets (or multi-sets) of tuples Integrity constraints • Keys, foreign keys, inclusion dependencies

    6. Attribute names Table/relation name Product Tuples or rows

    7. SQL (very basic) Interview: candidate, date, recruiter, hireDecision, grade EmployeePerf: empID, name, reviewQuarter, grade, reviewer select recruiter, candidate fromInterview, EmployeePerf where recruiter=name AND grade < 2.5

    8. Query Answers • Q(D): the set (or multi-set) of rows resulting from applying the query Q on the database D. • Unless otherwise stated, we will consider sets rather than multi-sets.

    9. SQL (w/aggregation) EmployeePerf: empID, name, reviewQuarter, grade, reviewer select reviewer, Avg(grade) fromEmployeePerf where reviewQuarter=“1/2007”

    10. Integrity Constraints (Keys) • A key is a set of columns that uniquely determine a row in the database: • There do not exist two tuples, t1 and t2 such that t1≠ t2 and t1 and t2have the same values for the key columns. • (EmpID,reviewQuarter) is a key for EmployeePerf

    11. Integrity Constraints (Functional Dependencies) • A set of attribute A functionally determines a set of attributes B if: whenever , t1 and t2 agree on the values of A, they must also agree on the values of B. • For example, (EmpID, reviewQuarter) functionally determine (grade). • Note: a key dependency is a functional dependency where the key determines all the other columns.

    12. Integrity Constraints (Foreign Keys) • Given table T with key B and table S with key A: A is a foreign key of B in T if whenever a S has a row where the value of A is v, then T must have a row where the value of B is v. • Example: the empID attribute of EmployeePerf is a foreign key for attribute emp of Employee.

    13. General Integrity Constraints Tuple generating dependencies (TGD’s) Equality generating dependencies (EGD’s): right hand side contains only equalities. Exercise: express the previous constraints using general integrity constraints.

    14. Conjunctive Queries Q(X,T) :- Interview(X,D,Y,H,F), EmployeePerf(E,Y,T,W,Z), W < 2.5. Joins are expressed with multiple occurrences of the same variable select recruiter, candidate fromInterview, EmployeePerf where recruiter=name AND grade < 2.5

    15. Conjunctive Queries (interpreted predicates) Q(X,T) :- Interview(X,D,Y,H,F), EmployeePerf(E,Y,T,W,Z), W < 2.5. Interpreted (or comparison) predicates. Variables must also appear in regular atoms. select recruiter, candidate fromInterview, EmployeePerf where recruiter=name AND grade < 2.5

    16. Conjunctive Queries (negated subgoals) Q(X,T) :- Interview(X,D,Y,H,F), EmployeePerf(E,Y,T,W,Z), OfferMade(X, date). Safety: every head variable must appear in a positive subgoal.

    17. Unions of Conjunctive Queries Multiple rules with the same head predicate express a union Q(R,C) :- Interview(X,D,Y,H,F), EmployeePerf(E,Y,T,W,Z), W < 2.5. Q(R,C) :- Interview(X,D,Y,H,F), EmployeePerf(E,Y,T,W,Z), Manager(y), W > 3.9.

    18. Datalog (recursion) Database: edge(X,Y) – describing edges in a graph. Recursive query finds all paths in the graph. Path(X,Y) :- edge(X,Y) Path(X,Y) :- edge(X,Z), path(Z,Y)

    19. Outline • Review of basic database concepts • Query unfolding • Query containment • Answering queries using views

    20. Query Unfolding • Query composition is an important mechanism for writing complex queries. • Build query from views in a bottom up fashion. • Query unfolding “unwinds” query composition. • Important for: • Comparing between queries expressed with views • Query optimization (to examine all possible join orders) • Unfolding may even discover that the composition of two satisfiable queries is unsatisfiable! (exercise: find such an example).

    21. Query Unfolding Example The unfolding of Q3 is:

    22. Query Unfolding Algorithm • Find a subgoal p(X1 ,…,Xn) such that p is defined by a rule r. • Unify p(X1 ,…,Xn) with the head of r. • Replace p(X1 ,…,Xn) with the result of applying the unifier to the subgoals of r (use fresh variables for the existential variables of r). • Iterate until no unifications can be found. • If p is defined by a union of r1, …, rn, create n rules, for each of the r’s.

    23. Query Unfolding Summary • Unfolding does not necessarily create a more efficient query! • Just lets the optimizer explore more evaluation strategies. • Unfolding is the opposite of rewriting queries using views (see later). • The size of the resulting query can grow exponentially (exercise: show how).

    24. Outline • Review of basic database concepts • Query unfolding • Query containment • Answering queries using views

    25. Query Containment: Motivation (1) Intuitively, the unfolding of Q3 is equivalent to Q4: How can we justify this intuition formally?

    26. Query Containment: Motivation (2) Furthermore, the query Q5 that requires going through two hubs is contained in Q’3 We need algorithms to detect these relationships.

    27. Query Containment and Equivalence: Definitions Query Q1contained in query Q2 if for every database D Q1(D)  Q2(D) Query Q1 is equivalent to query Q2 if Q1(D)  Q2(D) and Q2(D)  Q1(D) Note: containment and equivalence are properties of the queries, not of the database!

    28. Notation Apology • Powerpoint does not have square • The book uses the square notation for containment, but the slides use the rounded version.

    29. Reality Check #1

    30. Reality Check #2

    31. Why Do We Need It? • When sources are described as views, we use containment to compare among them. • If we can remove sub-goals from a query, we can evaluate it more efficiently. • Actually, containment arises everywhere…

    32. Reconsidering the Example Relations:Flight(source, destination) Hub(city) Views: Q1(X,Y) :- Flight(X,Z), Hub(Z), Flight(Z,Y) Q2(X,Y) :- Hub(Z), Flight(Z,X), Flight(X,Y) Query: Q3(X,Z) :- Q1(X,Y), Q2(Y,Z) Unfolding: Q’3(X,Z) :- Flight(X,U), Hub(U), Flight(U,Y), Hub(W), Flight(W,Y), Flight(Y,Z)

    33. Remove Redundant Subgoals Redundant subgoals? Q’3(X,Z) :- Flight(X,U), Hub(U), Flight(U,Y), Hub(W), Flight(W,Y), Flight(Y,Z)  Q’’3(X,Z) :- Flight(X,U), Hub(U), Flight(U,Y), Flight(Y,Z) Is Q’’3 equivalent to Q’3? Q’3(X,Z) :- Flight(X,U), Hub(U), Flight(U,Y) Hub(W), Flight(W,Y), Flight(Y,Z)

    34. Containment: Conjunctive Queries • No interpreted predicates (,) • or negation for now. • Recall semantics: • if  maps the body subgoals to tuples in D • then, is an answer.

    35. Containment Mappings • : Vars(Q1) Vars(Q2) • is a containment mapping if: and

    36. Example Containment Mapping Q’3(X,Z) :- Flight(X,U), Hub(U), Flight(U,Y), Hub(W), Flight(W,Y), Flight(Y,Z) Q’’3(X,Z) :- Flight(X,U), Hub(U), Flight(U,Y), Flight(Y,Z) Identity mapping on all variables, except:

    37. Theorem[Chandra and Merlin, 1977] Q1 contains Q2 if and only if there is a containment mapping from Q1 to Q2. Deciding whether Q1 contains Q2 is NP-complete.

    38. Proof (sketch) (if): assume  exists: Let t be an answer to Q2 over database D (i.e., there is a mapping  from Vars(Q2) to D) Consider  .

    39. Proof (only-if direction) Assume containment holds. Consider the frozen database D’ of Q2. (variables of Q2 are constants in D’). The mapping from Q1 to D’: containment map.

    40. Frozen Database Q(X,Z) :- Flight(X,U), Hub(U), Flight(U,Y), Flight(Y,Z) Frozen database for Q(X,Z) is: Flight: {(X,U), (U,Y), (Y,Z)} Hub: {(U)}

    41. Two Views of this Result • Variable mapping: • a condition on variable mappings that guarantees containment • Representative (canonical) databases: • We found a (single) database that would offer a counter example if there was one • Containment results typically fall into one of these two classes.

    42. Union of Conjunctive Queries Theorem: a CQ is contained in a union of CQ’s if and only if it is contained in one of the conjunctive queries. Corollary: containment is still NP-complete.

    43. CQ’s with Comparison Predicates A tweak on containment mappings provides a sufficient condition: • : Vars(Q1)  Vars(Q2): and

    44. Example Containment Mapping

    45. Containment Mappings are not Sufficient No containment mapping, but

    46. Query Refinements We consider the refinements of Q2 The red containment mapping applies for the first refinement and the blue to the second.

    47. Constructing Query Refinements • Consider all complete orderings of the variables and constants in the query. • For each complete ordering, create a conjunctive query. • The result is a union of conjunctive queries.

    48. Complete Orderings Given a conjunction C of interpreted atoms over a set of variables X1,…,Xn a set of constants a1,…,am CT is a complete ordering if: CT |= C, and

    49. Query Refinements Let CT be a complete ordering of C1 Then: is a refinement of Q1

    50. Theorem: [Queries with Interpreted Predicates][Klug, 88, van der Meyden, 92] Q1 contains Q2 if and only if there is a containment mapping from Q1 to every refinement of Q2. Deciding whether Q1 contains Q2 is In practice, you can do much better (see CQIPContainment Algorithm in Sec. 2.3.4