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CS 245: Database System Principles. Notes 6: Query Processing Hector Garcia-Molina. Query Processing. Q  Query Plan. Focus: Relational System. Others?. Query Processing. Q  Query Plan. Example. Select B,D From R,S Where R.A = “c”  S.E = 2  R.C=S.C.

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CS 245: Database System Principles


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    1. CS 245: Database System Principles Notes 6: Query Processing Hector Garcia-Molina Notes 6

    2. Query Processing Q  Query Plan Notes 6

    3. Focus: Relational System • Others? Query Processing Q  Query Plan Notes 6

    4. Example Select B,D From R,S Where R.A = “c”  S.E = 2  R.C=S.C Notes 6

    5. R A B C S C D E a 1 10 10 x 2 b 1 20 20 y 2 c 2 10 30 z 2 d 2 35 40 x 1 e 3 45 50 y 3 Notes 6

    6. Answer B D 2 x R A B C S C D E a 1 10 10 x 2 b 1 20 20 y 2 c 2 10 30 z 2 d 2 35 40 x 1 e 3 45 50 y 3 Notes 6

    7. How do we execute query? - Do Cartesian product - Select tuples - Do projection One idea Notes 6

    8. RXS R.A R.B R.C S.C S.D S.E a 1 10 10 x 2 a 1 10 20 y 2 . . C 2 10 10 x 2 . . Notes 6

    9. Bingo! Got one... RXS R.A R.B R.C S.C S.D S.E a 1 10 10 x 2 a 1 10 20 y 2 . . C 2 10 10 x 2 . . Notes 6

    10. Relational Algebra - can be used to describe plans... Ex: Plan I B,D sR.A=“c” S.E=2  R.C=S.C X R S Notes 6

    11. Relational Algebra - can be used to describe plans... Ex: Plan I B,D sR.A=“c” S.E=2  R.C=S.C X R S OR: B,D [sR.A=“c” S.E=2  R.C = S.C (RXS)] Notes 6

    12. Another idea: Plan II B,D sR.A = “c”sS.E = 2 R S natural join Notes 6

    13. R S A B C s (R) s(S) C D E a 1 10 A B C C D E 10 x 2 b 1 20 c 2 10 10 x 2 20 y 2 c 2 10 20 y 2 30 z 2 d 2 35 30 z 2 40 x 1 e 3 45 50 y 3 Notes 6

    14. Plan III Use R.A and S.C Indexes (1) Use R.A index to select R tuples with R.A = “c” (2) For each R.C value found, use S.C index to find matching tuples Notes 6

    15. Plan III Use R.A and S.C Indexes (1) Use R.A index to select R tuples with R.A = “c” (2) For each R.C value found, use S.C index to find matching tuples (3) Eliminate S tuples S.E  2 (4) Join matching R,S tuples, project B,D attributes and place in result Notes 6

    16. R S A B C C D E a 1 10 10 x 2 b 1 20 20 y 2 c 2 10 30 z 2 d 2 35 40 x 1 e 3 45 50 y 3 A C I1 I2 Notes 6

    17. =“c” <c,2,10> R S A B C C D E a 1 10 10 x 2 b 1 20 20 y 2 c 2 10 30 z 2 d 2 35 40 x 1 e 3 45 50 y 3 A C I1 I2 Notes 6

    18. =“c” <c,2,10> <10,x,2> R S A B C C D E a 1 10 10 x 2 b 1 20 20 y 2 c 2 10 30 z 2 d 2 35 40 x 1 e 3 45 50 y 3 A C I1 I2 Notes 6

    19. =“c” <c,2,10> <10,x,2> check=2? output: <2,x> R S A B C C D E a 1 10 10 x 2 b 1 20 20 y 2 c 2 10 30 z 2 d 2 35 40 x 1 e 3 45 50 y 3 A C I1 I2 Notes 6

    20. =“c” <c,2,10> <10,x,2> check=2? output: <2,x> next tuple: <c,7,15> R S A B C C D E a 1 10 10 x 2 b 1 20 20 y 2 c 2 10 30 z 2 d 2 35 40 x 1 e 3 45 50 y 3 A C I1 I2 Notes 6

    21. Overview of Query Optimization Notes 6

    22. SQL query parse parse tree convert answer logical query plan execute apply laws statistics Pi “improved” l.q.p pick best estimate result sizes {(P1,C1),(P2,C2)...} l.q.p. +sizes estimate costs consider physical plans {P1,P2,…..} Notes 6

    23. Example: SQL query SELECT title FROM StarsIn WHERE starName IN ( SELECT name FROM MovieStar WHERE birthdate LIKE ‘%1960’ ); (Find the movies with stars born in 1960) Notes 6

    24. Example: Parse Tree <Query> <SFW> SELECT <SelList> FROM <FromList> WHERE <Condition> <Attribute> <RelName> <Tuple> IN <Query> title StarsIn <Attribute> ( <Query> ) starName <SFW> SELECT <SelList> FROM <FromList> WHERE <Condition> <Attribute> <RelName> <Attribute> LIKE <Pattern> name MovieStar birthDate ‘%1960’ Notes 6

    25. Example: Generating Relational Algebra title  StarsIn <condition> <tuple> IN name <attribute> birthdate LIKE ‘%1960’ starName MovieStar Fig. 7.15: An expression using a two-argument , midway between a parse tree and relational algebra Notes 6

    26. Example: Logical Query Plan title starName=name  StarsIn name birthdate LIKE ‘%1960’ MovieStar Fig. 7.18: Applying the rule for IN conditions Notes 6

    27. Example: Improved Logical Query Plan title Question: Push project to StarsIn? starName=name StarsIn name birthdate LIKE ‘%1960’ MovieStar Fig. 7.20: An improvement on fig. 7.18. Notes 6

    28. Example: Estimate Result Sizes Need expected size StarsIn MovieStar P s Notes 6

    29. Example: One Physical Plan Parameters: join order, memory size, project attributes,... Hash join SEQ scan index scan Parameters: Select Condition,... StarsIn MovieStar Notes 6

    30. Example: Estimate costs L.Q.P P1 P2 …. Pn C1 C2 …. Cn Pick best! Notes 6

    31. Textbook outline Chapter 15 5 Algebra for queries [bags vs sets] - Select, project, join, …. [project list a,a+b->x,…] - Duplicate elimination, grouping, sorting 15.1 Physical operators - Scan,sort, … 15.2 - 15.6 Implementing operators + estimating their cost [Ch 5] [15.1] [15.2-15.6] Notes 6

    32. Chapter 16 16.1[16.1] Parsing 16.2[16.2] Algebraic laws 16.3[16.3] Parse tree -> logical query plan 16.4[16.4] Estimating result sizes 16.5-7[16.5-7] Cost based optimization Notes 6

    33. Reading textbook - Chapters 15, 16 Optional: • Sections 15.7, 15.8, 15.9 [15.7, 15.8] • Sections 16.6, 16.7 [16.6, 16.7] Optional: Duplicate elimination operator grouping, aggregation operators Notes 6

    34. Query Optimization - In class order • Relational algebra level • Detailed query plan level Notes 6

    35. Query Optimization - In class order • Relational algebra level • Detailed query plan level • Estimate Costs • without indexes • with indexes • Generate and compare plans Notes 6

    36. Relational algebra optimization • Transformation rules (preserve equivalence) • What are good transformations? Notes 6

    37. Rules:Natural joins & cross products & union R S = S R (R S) T = R (S T) Notes 6

    38. Note: • Carry attribute names in results, so order is not important • Can also write as trees, e.g.: T R R S S T Notes 6

    39. Rules:Natural joins & cross products & union R S = S R (R S) T = R (S T) R x S = S x R (R x S) x T = R x (S x T) R U S = S U R R U (S U T) = (R U S) U T Notes 6

    40. Rules: Selects sp1p2(R) = sp1vp2(R) = Notes 6

    41. Rules: Selects sp1p2(R) = sp1vp2(R) = sp1 [ sp2 (R)] [ sp1 (R)] U [ sp2 (R)] Notes 6

    42. Bags vs. Sets R = {a,a,b,b,b,c} S = {b,b,c,c,d} RUS = ? Notes 6

    43. Bags vs. Sets R = {a,a,b,b,b,c} S = {b,b,c,c,d} RUS = ? • Option 1 SUM • RUS = {a,a,b,b,b,b,b,c,c,c,d} • Option 2 MAX • RUS = {a,a,b,b,b,c,c,d} Notes 6

    44. Option 2 (MAX) makes this rule work:sp1vp2 (R) = sp1(R) U sp2(R) Example: R={a,a,b,b,b,c} P1 satisfied by a,b; P2 satisfied by b,c Notes 6

    45. Option 2 (MAX) makes this rule work:sp1vp2 (R) = sp1(R) U sp2(R) Example: R={a,a,b,b,b,c} P1 satisfied by a,b; P2 satisfied by b,c sp1vp2 (R) = {a,a,b,b,b,c}sp1(R) = {a,a,b,b,b}sp2(R) = {b,b,b,c}sp1(R) U sp2 (R) = {a,a,b,b,b,c} Notes 6

    46. “Sum” option makes more sense: Senators (……) Rep (……) T1 = pyr,state Senators; T2 = pyr,state Reps T1 Yr State T2 Yr State 97 CA 99 CA 99 CA 99 CA 98 AZ 98 CA Union? Notes 6

    47. Executive Decision -> Use “SUM” option for bag unions -> Some rules cannot be used for bags Notes 6

    48. Rules: Project Let: X = set of attributes Y = set of attributes XY = X U Y pxy (R) = Notes 6

    49. Rules: Project Let: X = set of attributes Y = set of attributes XY = X U Y pxy (R) = px [py (R)] Notes 6

    50. Rules: Project Let: X = set of attributes Y = set of attributes XY = X U Y pxy (R) = px [py (R)] Notes 6