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Works and expressions

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  1. Works and expressions • Naming the work • Multiple works by one creator • Differentiating works

  2. Where are the Instructions? • Generally, the instructions for identifying works and expressions are in chapter 6. • You will also need to consult the related instructions in: • Chapter 19, “Persons, Families, and Corporate Bodies Associated with a Work” • Chapter 20, “Persons, Families, and Corporate Bodies Associated with an Expression”

  3. “Naming the Work” • Just like ‘naming’ persons and corporate bodies (and now, families) • Similar to AACR2 concept of “main entry” • MARC has four possibilities for where this information can be coded • 1XX + 240 • 1XX + 245 • 130 • 245 • also 7XX for components of compilations

  4. Terminology Related to “Works” • Title of the work (RDA 6.2.1.1) • “word, character, or group of words and/or characters by which a work is known” • Preferred title for the work (RDA 6.2.2.1) • the form of title used when constructing the authorized access point • Variant title for the work (RDA 6.2.3.1) • the form of title used when constructing a variant access point • aka “see references”

  5. Authorized Access Points for Works (6.27.1.1 - 6.27.1.8) • How to put together the elements to construct an authorized access point • Preferred title is the basis • Authorized access point for the creatorprecedes the preferred title, as applicable • Additions to the preferred title as instructed under 6.27.1.9 • Links back to the instructions on recording each of the specific elements

  6. Compilations and Collaborations • Important distinction • Determines how each is ‘identified’ • Compilations • RDA 6.27.1.4 • Collaborations • RDA 6.27.1.3 We will discuss compilations by one creator

  7. How to Decide? • Clues that you have a compilation: • Indication of who created what • From the preferred source, table of contents, preface, program notes, home page, other components in the resource • Assume it is a collaboration if: • you have no indication who created what • you are in doubt

  8. Multiple Works by One Creator • Must be treated as a compilation • i.e., there are no collaborators • Identified by • Creator • + • Preferred title

  9. Preferred Title – Compilations ofOne Person/Family/CB(6.2.2.10) • Has compilation become known by a title? • Not usually (says LC) • But, e.g., Leaves of grass is an example of a compilation known by a title • If not, use a conventional collective title (doesn’t matter if title proper is distinctive): • Complete works = use “Works” • Complete works in a single form = use term chosen by cataloger • Other compilations of two or more (but not all) works in same form or different forms = add “Selections” to the conventional collective title

  10. Preferred Title – Compilations of Person/Family/CB (cont.) • Major changes from AACR2! • Under RDA, catalogers will no longer need to: • Determine if the creator created works only in a single form • Determine if the title proper of the compilation is “distinctive”

  11. AACR2: use the 1st work as the preferred title (but this misidentifies the compilation) Example: Compilation of 2Works by the Same Creator 100 1# $a Miller, Arthur, $d 1915-2005 240 10 $a Archbishop’s ceiling 245 10 $a Two plays / $c Arthur Miller. 505 0# $a The Archbishop’s ceiling -- The American clock. 700 12 $a Miller, Arthur, $d 1915-2005. $t American clock.

  12. RDA: apply thealternative to use a conventional collective title Example (cont.)2 Works by the Same Creator 100 1# $a Miller, Arthur, $d 1915-2005, $e author. 240 10 $a Plays. $k Selections 245 10 $a Two plays / $c Arthur Miller. 505 0# $a The Archbishop’s ceiling -- The American clock. 70012 $iContains (work): $aMiller, Arthur, $d 1915-2005. $t Archbishop’s ceiling. *700 12 $iContains (work):$a Miller, Arthur, $d 1915-2005. $t American clock. * 2nd 700 not a core requirement but helpful to the user

  13. Multiple Works by Multiple Creators -- Compilations vs. Collaborations • Compilation • Preferred title • Without a creator, because there is no single creator of the individual works • Collaboration • Creator (principal or first-named) • + • Preferred title

  14. Alternative titles, or, How do I name that work? • RDA 2.3.2.1: An alternative title is treated as part of the title proper. • Glossary definition: The second part of a title proper that consists of two parts (each of which has the form of an independent title), joined by a word such as “or” or its equivalent in another language. • RDA 6.2.2.4: Do not include an alternative title as part of the preferred title. 100 1_ Owens, Jo, $d 1961- $e author. 240 10 Add kids, stir briskly 245 10 Add kids, stir briskly, or, How I learned to love my life / $c Jo Owens. 246 30 How I learned to love my life

  15. What is the title proper of this manifestation? Walking Ollie, or, Winning the love of a difficult dog • Any variant titles? Winning the love of a difficult dog Possibly also: Walking Ollie • What is the preferred title for the work? Walking Ollie • The author’s AAP is: Foster, Stephen, $d 1962- What would be the authorized access point for the work? 100 1_ Foster, Stephen, $d 1962- $t Walking Ollie • Fill in any MARC fields needed in an RDA bibliographic record: 100 1_ Foster, Stephen, $d 1962- $e author. 240 10 Walking Ollie 245 10 Walking Ollie, or, Winning the love of a difficult dog / $c Stephen Foster. 246 30 Winning the love of a difficult dog 246 30 Walking Ollie [probably not necessary]

  16. Additions to Access Points Representing Works • Formulating the Authorized Access Point • Start with preferred title • Precede by creator, if appropriate • Addition(s) to make it distinct • RDA 6.27.1.9 • Each possible addition discussed in detail in earlier provisions of chapter 6

  17. Additions to Access Points Representing Works • Form of work (6.3) • Date of the work (6.4) • Place of origin of the work (6.5) • An otherdistinguishing characteristic of the work (6.6) • no priority order • can give more than one if needed

  18. PCC Policy on Differentiating Works -- LC-PCC PS 6.27.1.9 • Generally: • “catalog” = the file against which cataloging is being done; may also take into account any resource which is known • use the AAP whenever the resource is referred to in other AP’s (including subjects) or in notes citing relationships between resources • resolve the conflict by making an addition to the AAP in the bibliographic record being created; do not also modify the existing record; exceptions listed in the PS • do not predict a conflict • when a resource is republished or reproduced, the AAP for the original is used for any republication

  19. PCC Policy on Differentiating Works -- LC-PCC PS 6.27.1.9 • “… with a parenthetical qualifier …” • Choice of qualifying term: Use judgment. • corporate body • date of publication • descriptive data elements, e.g., edition statement • place of publication • any word(s) that will serve to distinguish the works • more than one qualifier if needed list not prescriptive, not in priority order

  20. Additions to Access Points --Examples Advocate (Boise, Idaho) Advocate (Nairobi, Kenya) Bulletin (New York State Museum : 1945) Bulletin (New York State Museum : 1976) use of two qualifiers (corporate body and date) distinguish with place Dublin magazine (1762) Dublin magazine (1965) distinguish with date

  21. Additions to Access Points -- Form of Work (6.3) • CORE ELEMENT when needed to differentiate • “class or genre to which a work belongs” • Take from any source • No controlled vocabulary • Added after preferred title in parentheses 130 0# $a Chanson de Roland (Poem)

  22. Form of Work All that jazz (Motion picture) Association for the Anthropological Study of Play (Series) Cinderella (Computer file) i-D (Magazine) Rumpelstiltskin (Folk tale) Loos, Anita, $d 1893-1981. $t Gentlemen prefer blondes (Play) Dumas, Alexandre, $d 1824-1895. $t Dame aux camélias (Novel) Card, Orson Scott. $t Ender's game (Graphic novel) Berlin, Irving, $d 1888-1989. $t White Christmas (Motion picture music)

  23. Additions to Access Points -- Date of Work (6.4) • CORE ELEMENT when needed to differentiate • “earliest date associated with a work” • created, first published, or released • Take from any source • Year(s) alone • Added after preferred title in parentheses 110 2# $a Connecticut Commission on Children. 240 10 $a Annual report (2005)

  24. Date of Work Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn, $d 1606-1669. $t Adoration of the shepherds (1631) Illinois. $t Constitution (1970) Dublin magazine (1762) Dublin magazine (1965) Infermental (Magazine :1980-1991) Arthur (Motion picture : 2011) American family (Television program : 2002) Battlestar Galactica (Television program : 1978-1979) Battlestar Galactica (Television program : 2003) Battlestar Galactica (Television program : 2004-2009)

  25. Additions to Access Points -- Place of Origin of Work (6.5) • CORE ELEMENT when needed to differentiate • “the country or other territorial jurisdiction from which a work originated” • Take from any source • In form prescribed in Chapter 16 • Added after preferred title in parentheses 130 0# $a Renaissance history (Boston, Mass.) 245 10 $a Renaissance history : $b a re- examination.

  26. Place of Origin of Work Discover (Chicago, Ill.) Western writers series (Carbondale, Ill.) Western writers series (Seattle, Wash.) Abacus (Elmwood, Hartford County, Conn.) Monitor (Chicago, Ill. : 2002) Antiques roadshow (Television program : Great Britain) Antiques roadshow (Television program : U.S.) OTT(Series)(Chicago, Ill.)

  27. Additions to Access Points --Other Distinguishing Characteristic (6.6) • CORE ELEMENT when needed to differentiate • “a characteristic other than form of work, date of work, or place of origin of the work that serves to differentiate a work from another work or from the name of a person, family, or corporate body” • Take from any source • In established form (for corporate bodies) • Added after preferred title in parentheses

  28. Other Distinguishing Characteristic Yale Western Americana series (Unnumbered) Eyck, Jan van, 1390-1440. $t Saint Francis receiving the stigmata (Philadelphia Museum of Art) Research paper (University of Chicago. Department of Geography) Collector series (Cartoon Network (Television network)) Cooperative groundwater report (Illinois State Water Survey: 1981) American family (Television program : AmericanLife TV Network) Around the world in 80 days (Television program : 1989: NBC Television Network) Harlow(Motion picture : 1965 : Douglas) Harlow(Motion picture : 1965 : Segal)

  29. 245 ?0 Constitutional law / $c edited by Joel Wm. Friedman. 264 _1 Austin, Texas : $b WoltersKluwer Law & Business ; $a New York : Aspen Publishers, $c [2007] 490 1_ Friedman’s practice series 650 _0 Constitutional law $z United States $v Examinations, questions, etc. 245 ?0 Constitutional law / $c edited by Ian Loveland. 264 _1 Aldershot, Hants, England ; $a Brookfield, Vermont : $b Ashgate/ Dartmouth, $c [2000] 490 1_ The international library of essays in law and legal theory. Second series 650 _0 Constitutional law. 245 ?0 Constitutional law / $c edited by Mark V. Tushnet. 264 _1 New York, NY : $b New York University Press, $c 1992. 490 1_ The international library of essays in law and legal theory. Areas ; $v 9 500 "New York University Press reference collection." 650 _0 Constitutional law $z United States.

  30. 130 0_ Constitutional law ( ) 245 10 Constitutional law / $c edited by Joel Wm. Friedman. Possibilities:(Examinations) (2007) (Austin, Tex.) (Friedman) (Friedman’s practice series) 130 0_ Constitutional law ( ) 245 10 Constitutional law / $c edited by Ian Loveland. Possibilities:(Essays : 2000) (Essays : Loveland) (2000) (Aldershot, England) (Loveland) 130 0_ Constitutional law ( ) 245 10 Constitutional law / $c edited by Mark V. Tushnet. Possibilities:(Essays : 1992) (Essays : Tushnet) (1992) (New York, N.Y.) (Tushnet)

  31. AACR2:245 04 The Bar Association of San Francisco : $b an illustrated history from 1872 to 1924 / $c editor, J.O. Denny.260 San Francisco : $b A. Wheeler, $c 1923. RDA 6.27.1.9: Additions made to distinguish work from an access point for a person, corporate body, family, or place: 130 0_ Bar Association of San Francisco (History)245 14 The Bar Association of San Francisco : $b an illustrated history from 1872 to 1924 / $c editor, J.O. Denny. or perhaps(1923) (Denny) (San Francisco, Calif.) (Illustrated history) (Arthur Wheeler)

  32. Exercise: Differentiating Titles • Examine the information provided about the various works that all have the preferred title Biodiversity. • Determine the authorized access point for each work, making additions as needed to differentiate.

  33. Relationships • Overview of relationships in RDA • Relationship designators

  34. Basics of relationships 1. Entities being related? 2. Types of relationships

  35. Entities being related Relationships between: • Resources and associated persons, families, and corporate bodies (FRBR Group 1 - FRBR Group 2) • Resources (works, expressions,manifestations, items) (FRBR Group 1 - FRBR Group 1) • Persons, families, corporate bodies (FRBR Group 2 - FRBR Group 2)

  36. Relationships in RDA • Chapters 18-22, Appendix I • Resource and associated persons, families, corporate bodies • Chapters 24-28, Appendix J • Between resources (works, expressions, manifestations, items) • Chapters 29-32, Appendix K • Between persons, families, corporate bodies

  37. Relationship designators RDA appendices I, J, and K Not CORE Not closed lists “If none of the terms listed in this appendix is appropriate or sufficiently specific, use another concise term to indicate the nature of the relationship.” LC policy: decisions in some LC-PCC PS’s; otherwise, cataloger judgment to use PCC Guidelines

  38. [Screen image from the RDA Toolkit (www.rdatoolkit.org) used by permission of the Co-Publishers for RDA (American Library Association, Canadian Library Association, and CILIP: Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals)]

  39. PCC Guidelines on Relationship Designators in Bib Records • Include a relationship designator for all creators (whether 1XX or 7XX) • Highly encouraged to include Appendix I relationship designators for all access points whenever it is clear what the relationship is • Prefer terms from RDA appendices; propose new terms when needed; however, terms from other lists may also be used

  40. PCC Guidelines on Relationship Designators in Bib Records • Prefer a specific term to a more general one (e.g., librettist instead of author for the creator of a libretto) • May use RDA element name as a relationship designator if nothing else expresses the relationship, e.g. • creator • publisher • distributor

  41. PCC Guidelines on Relationship Designators in Bib Records • If nature of relationship cannot be ascertained even at a general level, don’t use a designator • Follow the definitions and FRBR level used in RDA for designators, e.g. • artist (work level designator for a creator) vs. • illustrator (expression level designator for a contributor)

  42. PCC Guidelines on Relationship Designators in Bib Records • Preferably, use repeatable $e (or $j in 111/711) when entity has multiple roles; add the designators in WEMI order 100 1_ Sendak, Maurice, $e author, $e illustrator. 700 1_ Allen, Woody, $d 1935- $e screenwriter, $e film director, $e actor, $e composer (expression) Note: no comma used when $e follows a hyphen

  43. PCC Guidelines on Relationship Designators in Bib Records • If necessary, multiple identical AAPs may be recorded instead 100 1_ Roethke, Theodore, $d 1908-1963, $e author. 700 1_ Roethke, Theodore, $d 1908-1963, $e former owner. $5 WaU Relationship of author applicable universally; relationship of former owner only applicable to an item owned by UW Libraries

  44. PCC Guidelines on Relationship Designators in Bib Records • Do not include Appendix I designators in name/title access points tagged MARC 700-711 or 800-811, or in a name/title linking field tagged MARC 76X-78X 700 02 $iContains (work): $a Aristotle. $t Metaphysics. 700 02 $iContains (work): $a Aristotle, $e author. $t Metaphysics not Changes to Container of (work) in April 2014 Toolkit update

  45. PCC Guidelines on Relationship Designators in Bib Records • Use of relationship designators from Appendix J for resource-to-resource relationships is encouraged 700 1_ $i Parody of (work): $a Tolkien, J. R. R. $q (John Ronald Reuel), $d 1892-1973. $t Lord of the rings. Work described in 245 field: Bored of the rings LC-PCC PS for J.1: Give $i as first subfield, capitalize the first word in the designator, and end the subfield with a colon.

  46. PCC Guidelines on Relationship Designators in Bib Records • If MARC 7XX field being used has the subfield $i defined, provide a relationship designator even if the MARC field coding otherwise already expresses a relationship 700 12 $iContains (work): $a Diemer, Emma Lou. $t Toccatas, $m piano. 700 12 $i Contains (work): $a Zwilich, Ellen Taaffe, $d 1939- $t Lament. 700 12 $i Contains (work): $a Larsen, Libby. $t Mephisto rag.

  47. Which direction? • Definitions in Appendix J describe what the designator points to, not what the record describes: 100 $a Author’s name, $e screenwriter. 245 $a Script for a TV show 730 $iScreenplay for the television program (work): $a TV show Definition: A work that uses the text as a screenplay for a television program.