Group Psychology & Conflict Model. PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH. The essence of a group, that which holds it together, is the system of libidinal ties among the members which is derived from aim-inhibited sexual impulses.
The essence of a group, that which holds it together, is the system of libidinal ties among the members which is derived from aim-inhibited sexual impulses.
A primary group is a number of individuals who have taken the same person (the leader) for their ideal and who, by virtue of having a common ideal, identify themselves with one another (Freud, 1921)
Group identification generates emotional bonds between leader and the group members.
Bond with leader is more important for group stability than ties between members.
When ties of members with leader is broken the group dissolves unless another person acquires the status of an ideal figure.
The effect of group membership
It intensifies the emotions of the members
It inhibits the intellectual functioning
These effects result from the libidinal relationships within the group. The person is more governed by his id than by his ego.
The archaic prototype of a primary group is a father and his sons – the libido – denied discharge – producing identification between sons and father.
Group formation is a revival of the primal horde, in which primal father is the group ideal which governs the ego in place of the ego ideal.
TOTEM AND TABOO (1913)
MOSES AND MONOTHEISM (1939)
Down of society, group lived under strong leadership
The father as leader
Leader having unlimited power – used sadistically against his sons
All female members as property
When jealous, killed, castrated, driven out of the tribe
Sons stealing wives from other tribes leading to inter tribal warfare – further strengthen group ties
Favored son chosen as tribal leader/successor
Driven sons killed father identified father by incorporating a part of him
Intra-conflict among sons for power lead to discovery of fraternal aggression dangerous
Social contract formed, renunciation of instinctual gratification
This ensure group solidarity, establishment of taboo against incest and the law of exogamy (marrying other group member).
Thus, first society developed out of the family
Aggression was directed to other group to solidified the in-group and restore brotherly love.
(Volkan n Ross 88,93)
According to this version of the theory, ego, while becoming separate from id, acquires certain functions that have to do with the external world, i.e. relations of one's self with objects (persons and things).
Volkan (1988 see also Ross, 1993) claims that the ability to construct images develops in infancy and early childhood in three stages:
There are Suitable Targets of Externalization (STEs) (reservoirs of images) determined by
Every person needs STEs to maintain his cohesiveness, sense of self, and to differentiate it from the representation of others.
It is adopted. How it prevails over individual identity? How it contribute to intergroup conflict?
As long as tent remains strong and stable, group go out daily without paying much attention to it…without a need to prove or express their ethnic identity
Cultural symbols, rituals help to define ethnic identity but apart from it…to define it positively it need MORE THAN SYMBOLS AND RITUALS
1. Minorities considered as non-assimilable easily become targets for externalization (projection) of Majority's negative feelings and images.
2. Dreadful psychological dynamic can be seen in majority-minority relations
THEORETICAL IMPLICATION ON DISTINCTION BETWEEN INTERPERSONAL AND INTERGROUP BEHAVIOR:
Tajfel (1979): intergroup behavior requires a different level of analysis from intra-group or interpersonal behavior.
Hutu & Tutsi are not ethnic or tribal groups…same language, religion, and culture, history of extensive intermarriage and even exchange identities. Essentially the same people. Difference were emphasized by colonialists leading to exaggeration of quite small differences in physical attributes such as height and skin color….social differenctiation concluded with a deliberate genocide…causes complex but include a psychological component (Tajfel experiment…no conflict of interest…simply categorization)
IS IT POSSIBLE TO INCREASE SELF ESTEEM BY minorities?