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Vergil’s World, p. 1-13 PowerPoint Presentation
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Vergil’s World, p. 1-13

Vergil’s World, p. 1-13

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Vergil’s World, p. 1-13

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  1. Vergil’s World, p. 1-13 Background of the Aeneid

  2. Brief History • 753 BC: Founding of Rome • Monarchy with 7 Kings • 509 BC: Republic • 27 BC: Empire *This transition from Republic to Empire is when the Aeneid was written, NOT when it takes place

  3. #1) The First Triumvirate • Members: Caesar (broker) and Pompey & Crassus (power) • Established in 60 B.C. • This joining together of three men to form a control was created because each person wanted power and something individually • Its ineffectiveness was a result of Caesar’s seizing control for himself

  4. Timeline • 60 BC: Formation of 1st Triumvirate • 59 BC: Caesar & Bibulus (consuls) • 58 BC: Caesar went to Gaul • 55 BC: Pompey & Crassus are consuls • 54 BC: Julia dies • 53-52 BC: Rioting in Rome; burning the Senate house • 49 BC: Caesar crossed the Rubicon and violated the pomerium • 44 BC: Caesar declared dictator for life

  5. #2) Assassination of Julius Caesar • Events leading up to the assassination… • Used Imperator as his name and the name of all his heirs • Wore purple - color from the King period • Carried in a golden sedan chair • Put up statues of himself • Named a month after himself: July • Had Mark Anthony try to put a crown on his head • Required magistrates to swear to protect the person of J. Caesar and his acta • Put up a temple to his “genius” (deification)

  6. #2) Assassination of Julius Caesar • Motivation of the conspirators: • Republicans: felt they owed loyalty to the Republic and the Senate • Jealous Men: wanted Caesar gone • Hangers-On: loved the excitement of the moment

  7. #2) Assassination of Julius Caesar • Results… • Confusion: the Senate did not reassert itself • Caesar’s party flourished after his death due to support from devoted officers, loyal veterans, and the city populace • Led by Mark Anthony and Lepidus

  8. Death of Caesar

  9. #3) Caesar’s Will • Mark Anthony: • Took possession of Caesar’s papers and expressed rage at the murder • Goes to Egypt: awaits the appointment as heir in Caesar’s will • Lepidus: • Forced to Spain (concentrated the military power) and acquired Gaul • Octavian (18 yrs old in 44 BC) • Named heir in the will (Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus) • Stayed in Rome, raised an army, cooperated with the Senate • Cicero’s Philippic Orations in favor of Octavian

  10. Mark Antony

  11. #4) 2nd Triumvirate • Members: Octavian, Lepidus, and Mark Anthony • 42 BC: Octavian marches on Rome, made consul, created Triumvirate, enforced a proscription list (Cicero) *PURPOSE: Create a Caesarian Party • 42 BC: Triumvirate battles J. Caesar’s conspirators (Brutus and Cassius) at the Battle of Phillipi (Brutus and Cassius commit suicide)

  12. #4) 2nd Triumvirate • 40 BC: • Anthony - eastern provinces with Cleopatra • Octavian - western provinces in Rome • Lepidus - given promises of provinces • 38 BC: Anthony marries Octavia

  13. #5) 2nd Triumvirate (37-33 BCE) • Breach between members widens • A) Octavian has Agrippa as his master general, Maecenas as his administrator • B) Hellenistic movement to give Eastern provinces to Cleopatra in Alexandria • C) Lepidus retired • D) Pompey killed

  14. #6) Battle of Actium • Leading up to the battle: • Oriental propaganda in Rome v. Anthony and Cleopatra in Egypt • 14 years of Civil War since Caesar’s murder • Battle: 31 BC • Octavian DEFEATS Mark Anthony and Cleopatra in a naval battle • Brings end to Civil War

  15. Battle of Actium

  16. #6) Aftermath of Battle of Actium • 29 BC: Octavian celebrates victory triumphs and parade • 28 BC: Octavian and Agrippa were censors and purged Senate of all Caesar’s party members ONE MAN RULE OF OCTAVIAN WAS CREATED

  17. #7) Honors from the Senate • Triumph (highest honor) • Granted title of Augustus • Protected by guards • Carried in the curule chair - symbol of consulship • Civic crown of oak leaves • Month “Sextilis” renamed Augustus

  18. Rule of Augustus: Pater Patriae • Governmental reforms were concealed in the traditional form of the Republic • Closed the doors of Janus • Institutions retained • Soldiers demobilized • No Senator could leave town without the permission of the Princeps, the senior senator • Pontifex Maximus gave him control of religion

  19. #8) Augustus • “Revered One” or “Honored One” • Tiberius - step son • Marcellus - nephew * Both took this name too • POWER: Army and Finances • Controlled the legal system with these

  20. #10) mores majorum • Manners or customs of one’s ancestors • STABILITY • Promote Romanization • Restore the former moral values • Bring back personal responsibility (esp. for leaders) • Revert back to the worship of ancient gods THESE SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS REFORMS WOULD SUPPORT THE POLITICAL GOALS OF AUGUSTUS

  21. #13) CIVIL REFORMS • Imperial Civil Service • Aqueducts, temples, highways • Fire Service • Police Service

  22. #13) RELIGIOUS REFORMS • Restore past in ethics and religion • State Worship: holidays, ceremonies, festivals, religious rites, sacrifices (i.e. Troy Games) • mores majorum • Worship Genius Augusti • Romanitas-Rome’s function in history as a stabilizing political and moral force *PIETAS: Proper subordination to the GODS, STATE, HOUSEHOLD

  23. #13) LAW REFORMS • Changed law • Increased “personal responsibility” • Made people feel safe, organized, and STABLE

  24. #13) LITERATURE AND ART REFORMS • Produced themes to inspire and conditions for writers • “Golden Age” of writing: writing was a profession (patrons) • Themes: grandeur of the Roman past, religious and social revival, glorious destiny of the empire • Produced art to dazzle Romans • Painters, portraits, busts, statues • Ara Pacis

  25. #11) Other Authors • Ovid • Catullus • Horace • Propertius • Tibullus • Livy: History of Rome

  26. #12) Ara Pacis • Altar to Pax Romana • VISUAL monument (illiterate) • Epic art - tells a story/history of Rome • Culminates in Augustus

  27. Achievements Established a system of government for the Roman Empire which lasted 5 centuries (476AD) Peace Consolidation of the Roman Empire Weaknesses Ruthlessness Military control-use army to make or unmake leaders Wealthy minority benefit from improved conditions while the gov. expenses hurt the poor) People only looked to Augustus for rewards and advancement RULE OF AUGUSTUS