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What is Operations ResearchTerminology, History and Applications
Terminology The British/Europeans refer to "operational research", the Americans to "operations research" - but both are often shortened to just "OR". Another term used for this field is "management science" ("MS"). In U.S. OR and MS are combined together to form "OR/MS" or "ORMS". Yet other terms sometimes used are "industrial engineering" ("IE") and "decision science" ("DS").
History of OR OR is a relatively new discipline. 90 years ago it would have been possible to study mathematics, physics or engineering at university it would not have been possible to study OR. It was really only in the late 1930's that operational research began in a systematic way.
Operations Research Models Deterministic Models Stochastic Models • Linear Programming • Discrete-Time Markov Chains • Network Optimization • Continuous-Time Markov Chains • Integer Programming • Queueing • Nonlinear Programming • Decision Analysis
What is Operations Research/ Management Science? OR/MS is the scientific approach to execute decision making, which consist of The art of mathematical modeling of complex situations The science of the development of solution techniquesused to solve these models The ability to effectively communicatethe results to the decision maker
What Do We do • OR professionals aim to provide rational bases for decision making by seeking to understand and structure complex situations and to use this understanding to predict system behavior and improve system performance. • Much of this work is done using analytical and numerical techniques to develop and manipulate mathematical and computer models of organizational systems composed of people, machines, and procedures.
OR Applications Scheduling aircraft and personal in response to groundings and delays Planning production to meet demand Scheduling equipment and workforce in industry Adjusting nurse schedules in light of daily fluctuations in demand
Example: Traveling Salesman Problem • Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP): Given a complete graph with nonnegative edge costs, Find a minimum cost cycle visiting every vertex exactly once. • Application (Example): Given a number of cities and the costs of traveling from any city to any other city, what is the cheapest round-trip route that visits each city exactly once and then returns to the starting city
3 3 2 3 2 3 4 2 2 2 2 3 2 4 4 1 1 4 1 5 5 3 3 5 5 Cost=15 3 3 2 3 2 3 2 1 4 3 4 4 1 1 2 5 3 3 5 5 Cost=18 Cost=11