Making Connections Yvette Evans M.S. CCC/ SLP-L Assistant Instructional Professor Doctoral Candidate Special Education Department Illinois State University Pediatric Speech & Language Pathologist Owner: Speech & Learning Connections The Illinois Council for Exceptional Children 64rth Annual Fall Convention November 7-9, 2013
Connecting Today’s Journey TeachingOur Connection The Brain on Learning Wiring the Connections Universal Design Learning Making the Connections Meeting Outcomes
Our Connection… A little about you… Share your name and your interest. What are challenges you face with your students?
Our Connection… Pinky & the Brain… Pinky, “ What are we going to do today?” Brain, “ Same thing we do everyday Pinky, try and take over (save) the world”.
Wiring Connections: A Little About the Brain A little about the brain… What does the neuroscientist say? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iN6wpwZzpzE Your thoughts… Write your answers down! What do we know about the brain? http://www.zerotothree.org/child-development/brain-development/brain-quiz.html
Wiring the Connections… The Developing Brain Time for us to probe the brain http://www.zerotothree.org/child-development/brain-development/baby-brain-map.html
Wiring the Connections: Amygdala • Helps process fear and stress • Processing memories with strong emotion • Pre-frontal cortex can interfere with amygdala hippocampus communication
Wiring the Connections: Hippocampus • Responds to stress • Responds to release of hormones • Communicates amygdala to process emotions
Wiring the Connections: Pre Frontal Cortex • Regulative • Executive • Social
Wiring the Connection: Chemicals NEUROTRANSMITTERS Serotonin- regulates mood, sleep, and digestion Dopamine- involved with rewards and attention; promotes approach behaviors Norepinephrine-alerts and arouses Cortisol You need to regulate that Cortisol!
Wiring the Connections • When you are talking, you are only igniting the occipital and the auditory area • Emotions drive attention, attention drives learning… • Nero-science is now- reinforcing what we already know- shows the physiology behind the psychology and teaching methods • Neurons that fire together stay wire together • 75% of the population has to speak to hear themselves think • The brain grows from the back to the front- that is why the frontal lobe is later developing : many of ef task occur here
Wiring the Connections: Stress & the Brain When children regularly experiences chaos or stress, their brains become wiredto react quickly to threatening, stressful experiences. Children whose brains have been wired by prolonged stress may overreact in some situations. This leads to learning difficulties, delays in brain development, and later difficulties coping with life's demands. Warning signs of an imbalance in brain development due to prolonged stress may include anxiety, impulsiveness, hyperactivity, poor impulse control, lack of empathy, and poor problem-solving skills. Stress Management for teachers & students: http://edudemic.com/2012/05/stressed-out-apps/ • http://www.fcs.uga.edu/ext/bbb/stressEffects.php
Finding the Connection: Self- Regulation (Executive Function Area) Students with the skills to manage strong emotions • Get along with peers and make good choices • Cope with strong emotions and express them in socially acceptable ways • Be successful at school Students with less-effective emotion-management skills are more likely to: • Be aggressive • Abuse substances • Act impulsively on their emotions Students with poor self-regulation are at a greater risk for: • Emotional and behavior problems • Peer rejection • Dropping out of school • Extremely bright students fail to perform at their level of potential http://developingchild.harvard.edu/resources/multimedia/videos/inbrief_series/inbrief_executive_function/
Executive Function: Finding the Connection to the Classroom: What I Can Do! • Emotional Self- Regulation (for the student and teacher) Self-talk Labeling anxiety Calming the emotional brain • Imagine safe place • Ride the worry wave ( I can ride it out) • Mindfulness mediation • Clearing a space: write down their worries to clear a space • Ground student in the moment • Widen focus: “big picture” • Ask questions with curiosity: “ What’s the crux of this issue?” • Changing viewpoint: “ what would you tell your best friend to do?” • Expanding the time frame: “ what is would be the first step?”
Wiring the Connections… Attention Deficit -Julie Schweitzer indicates that when people with ADHD perform tasks, their brains show increased, non-localized brain activity when compared to those without the diagnosis. http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/welcome/features/20071128_mind_adhd/
Wiring Connections… Autism Ongoing autism research is beginning to discover genes related to disruptions in the connections. Genome Project: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iEy2Py2R2BY Templin Grandin: Thinking in Pictures http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XcWx8UVhzpQ Approximately one-third of children with autism are macrocephalic, that is, they have an exceptionally large head and brain resulting from an excess growth of brain tissue. This excess of brain tissue is believed to alter neural networks. http://www.human.cornell.edu/hd/outreach-extension/upload/belmonte.pdf
Wiring the Connections… Autism: What Does Cornell Say? When presented with two task and background distractions… they were unable to shift their attention… they turn on all parts of their brain…many neurons in the brain, which are responsible for an abnormal ratio of excitation to inhibition within brain regions. Individuals with autism activated one part of the brain—specifically, the region responsible for visual processing—and showed weak transfer of activity between brain regions. This disruption is the extent to which separate brain regions “talk to each other”.
Making Connections… C.O.P.E by Autism Speaks The COPES program uses individualized programs for each of their students that incorporates the following elements… http://www.autismspeaks.org/sites/default/files/section_5.pdf Communication: students were given immediate access to communication for emotional issues Organization: to help decrease anxiety and a complex array of escape and avoidance behaviors (daily schedules, changes in schedules and or future events). Simple schedules and training on basic contingency management and use of visual supports showed rapid changes in behavior and reduced anxiety Positivebehavior supports: award the good behavior set up for success… awards chart Empowerment and self-determination: students responded immediately to their involvement in their plans Sensory and social: social success is based on the child being motivated and able to access the social situation.
Executive Function: Making the Connection to the classroom • Executive function skills are basically the cognitive processes needed for learning • Components of executive functioning • Plan/prioritize • Organize • Shifting: cognitive flexibility • Holding/manipulating information in the working memory • Self-regulation: self-monitoring
Executive Function: Making Connections to the Classroom • Shift occurred from primarily neurology and psychology to educators • Extremely bright students fail to perform at their level of potential and why “poor” students “ display strengths on highly structured , short, standardized measures. • Conceptual reasoning skills may be stronger than their output and productivity. Information gets clogged up in their funnels. • e • Students struggle with coordination and integration of sub skills: Along with working memory and attention. • Students need to understand how they think and how they learn, thus applying the strategies they need. • Components needed: student self-awareness,drive to thrive approach in the classroom, and a community of learning
Executive Function…Cognitive Basis for Learning How Does Executive Function Affect Learning? In school, at home or in the workplace, we’re called on all day, every day, to self-regulate behavior. Executive function allows us to: • Make plans • Keep track of time and finish work on time • Keep track of more than one thing at once • Meaningfully include past knowledge in discussions • Evaluate ideas and reflect on our work • Change our minds and make mid-course corrections while thinking, reading and writing • Ask for help or seek more information when we need it • Engage in group dynamics • Wait to speak until we’re called on http://www.ncld.org/types-learning-disabilities/executive-function-disorders/what-is-executive-function
Wiring the Connections: Attention and the Brain Do I have Your ATTENTION! Attention is critical for learning Bernard Baars (1997): global workspace of consciousness ( the mental chalkboard) 1. Keeping the information in the foreground of awareness: Am I able to be aware? 2. Updating Awareness: Am I having trouble filtering out distractions? 3. Keeping the right amount of stimulation: Am I managing my desire for more stimulation? Information is held in the working memory which is in a way, a dopamine-based gate. When the stimulation is down, the mind drifts off, searching for stimulation
Wiring the Connections Hmm… MEMORY • Memory occurs in several areas in the brain • Items will stay in the “working memory”for 5-30 seconds • The capacity of the semantic memory are influenced by the strength of the association and quantity of items. • Children 12 and younger can hold one item, older 2-3 items at a time. • An emotional response triggered during or immediately following a learning event with help embed the learning up to 90%.
Wiring the Connection… Neuron-Check Neurodiversity !!! Pause… Take three minutes and write down or draw the key ideas that you have found intriguing thus far…
Drive: Making the Connections In the Classroom A classroom of teachers is a classroom of learners Praise: their effort, not their intelligence • Praise effort and strategy, not intelligence • Make praise specific • Praise in private • Offer praise only when there’s a good reason Help them see the whole picture by enforcing… Why they are learning this concept? How is it relevant to the world? How is it relevant to them?
Making the Connections: Universal Design for Learning… How will this teaching pedagogy apply to us? A five minute video: http://www.udlcenter.org/resource_library/videos/udlcenter/udl#video0/ The Handout: Take a Look at the Principles: http://www.udlcenter.org/sites/udlcenter.org/files/updateguidelines2_0.pdf UDL: Early Learners http://rec.ohiorc.org/orc_documents/orc/recv2/briefs/pdf/0018.pdf
Making Connections: 3 UDL Principles Multiple Means of Representation –To increase recognition Multiple Means of Expression –To expand strategic output Multiple Means of Engagement –To enhance involvement
Drive: Making Connections to the Classroom Three elements of Motivation 3.0 according to Pink. • Student's need to gain autonomy, not empowerment Autonomy is self direction. • Mastery of the topic (big word in education ten years ago). • Purpose (education likes to use meaning or relevance). Pink, Daniel H. (2010) Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us. New York: Riverhead Trade. 272 pages. ISBN-13: 978-1594484803. Ted Talk: http://www.ted.com/talks/dan_pink_on_motivation.html
Making the Connections Each Brain is Unique: Though we have the same structures, our brains are integrated differently. Learning actually changes the structure of the brain, so the more we learn… the more unique our brain becomes. Caine, Renate, and Caine, Geoffrey (1990). Understanding a Brain-Based Approach to Learning and Teaching. Educational Leadership, Vol. 48. pg. 66-70.
Making Connections to the Classroom: Teach Like a Pirate: Get them Hooked! Dave Burgess P-Passion I-Immersion R-Rapport A-Ask and Analyze T- Transform E- Enthusiasm
Executive Function: making the Connection to the classroom- Ideas Creating your Classroom to Promote EF- Checklist for Teachers • Get the students “buy in”: Value the Task: E x V =M • Teach your students metacognition… • Teach them to set goals for learning (personal check list) • Create a culture of strategy use in the classroom • Strategy of the week, strategy wall, peer discussions, practice labs… • Start with key concepts… build on categories • Use “think-alouds”: help to approach a problem • Present information in reasonable chunks • Use background information, to scaffold new information • Monitor/track students progress on goals.
Making Connections: Support Expression & Self-Regulation Visuals can support… • Making Requests • Making Choices • Expressive Vocabulary • Describing • Sequence of language • Turn-taking • Answering Questions • Retelling information • Retelling sequence of steps Assistive Technology Exchange Center, (2009, May) Using Visual Strategies, Santa Ana, Ca. • Joint Attention • Initiation • Responding to other’s initiation • Turn-taking • Maintaining Interaction • Maintaining Topic • Repairing Communication Breakdowns • Body Language/ Facial expression • Terminating Interaction Appropriately
Making Connections to the Classroom: More Resources to Use A short PDF on activities: http://personal.ashland.edu/dkommer/ABCs%20of%20BBL.pdf Common Core and Brain-Based Learning: http://www.edutopia.org/blog/education-brain-common-core-ramona-persaud
Making Connections to the Classroom: Inspirations for Visuals, Just a Few to Get Started… Visuals for the Classroom: Ideas: http://www.nwresd.k12.or.us/autism/VisualStrategiesl.html#intro Visual supports for young children with Autism: http://www-tep.ucsd.edu/about/Courses/EDS382/General_Handouts/Autism-Visual%20Supports.pdf Visuals for Organization & Planning Apps & Such… LD Helpful Apps: http://www.ncld.org/students-disabilities/assistive-technology-education/apps-students-ld-organization-study Comprehensive List: http://blog.easystand.com/2011/01/complete-guide-to-special-needseducational-apps/ More Apps: http://educationalappsforall.wordpress.com/category/executive-functioning-apps/ Inspiration for Visual Thinking: http://www.inspiration.com/ Story Mapping: http://www.teachthought.com/apps-2/11-storyboarding-apps-organize-inspire-young-writers/
Executive Function: Connection to the classroom: Programs & Curriculum • Drive to Thrive: The Drive to Thrive program helps students to develop personalized strategies that enable them to become efficient, independent learners and that foster effort, persistence and resilience. http://www.researchild.org/programs • Resiliency: Resiliency consists, very broadly, of four main characteristics, (1) social competence, (2) problem solving, (3) autonomy, and (4) sense of purpose. http://lifering.org/2010/08/resiliency-the-drive-to-thrive/ • Free Download for Premier Curriculum: 2011 by Rush NeuroBehavioralCenter http://www.premiergraphics.biz/SSI-Demos/Executive-Functions-Samples/Executive-Functions-Teacher-Curriculum-Unit-4.pdf
A NOTE TO MY FELLOW CAPTAINS…AND CREW “ I not only use all the brains that I have , but all the brains that I can borrow…” WOODROW WILSON THANK YOU… Feel free to give me a shout out! firstname.lastname@example.org You are treasure!