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Scramble for Africa. What’s imperialism again? What’s an empire?. Old Imperialism. When did European imperialism begin? Old Imperialism-European colonization from 15 th to early 19 th Cs. New Imperialism.

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What’s imperialism again?

  • What’s an empire?
old imperialism
Old Imperialism
  • When did European imperialism begin?
  • Old Imperialism-European colonization from 15th to early 19th Cs.
new imperialism
New Imperialism
  • Colonization by the Euros, Americans, and Japanese in the 19th an early 20th Cs.
  • Driven by changes in technology and desire for resources
1 geography
1) Geography
  • Rivers and land difficult to navigate
3 african societies
3) African societies
  • Strong African armies
  • Trade networks brought goods to port colonies

FYI: This is Shaka Zulu, who built a huge kingdom in what is today South Africa that later battled Europeans

but then changes in europe causes
But then…changes in Europe! (Causes)


Steam Ships

Maxim guns



Quinine (treated malaria)-Actually super important!

  • Europeans could more easily penetrate Africa and subdue people
other things spurring african colonization
Other things spurring African colonization:

1) Interest-Explorers brought tales

Dr. Livingstone, I presume?


Belief in European superiority

  • What’s the word for this again?

Nationalistic desire to increase your nation’s status

  • What’s nationalism again?
  • How would it lead to a desire to “out do” other nation?

Racism and Social Darwinism

  • How did colonization lead to the development of race as an idea again?
  • What’s Darwinism? How could it be applied to society?

African disunity

  • Where else did disunity amongst native peoples make colonization easy for Euros?
first step cause
First step/Cause:
  • 1879-82: King Leopold (Belgium) establishes a personal kingdom (i.e. he personally owned it) in the Congo based on rubber

FYI, no need to write down: Congolese people, and sometimes their family members, had hands chopped off if they failed to meet rubber collection quotas

  • Other European nations began claiming territories in Africa
  • Germany, recently united, doesn’t want to be left out, calls for
results of real conference
Results of real Conference
  • Major rule-Principle of Effective Occupation: You had to actually control an area through direct rule or treaty, to claim it

Within 30 years, all of Africa, except Ethiopia and Liberia, colonized

  • Colonial boundaries had no consideration of ethnic groups

What problems could this cause?

  • What might this have to do with nationalism?
  • How were the Europeans’ actions ethnocentric?

Poorly drawn borders (and Europeans’ different treatment of different ethnic groups) helped create conflicts that often led to civil war after independence (we’ll learn about these later)

  • Many countries ended up with lots of official languages (South Africa has 11)
colonial success
Colonial success?
  • Africa used for natural resources (minerals, plantation crops), but few industrial goods produced there
  • Low-wage plantation and mine work meant few Africans could afford to buy European made goods, so Euros couldn’t sell much there
  • Poverty, inequality, and racism persisted
exit slips
Exit Slips
  • How was the Scramble for Africa an example of New Imperialism?
  • What were some causes of the Scramble?
  • What were some effects? (both from the contents of this lesson and your own critical thinking)
  • How did the Scramble advance globalization?
  • How does your new knowledge of the scramble change the way you understand yourself and your relationships to people around the globe?