Elements of a Short Story Sophomore English
Today’s Objectives • After today you will: • *Be an expert on all the literary elements involved in a short story. • *Relate elements (some old and some new) to a childhood story. • *Replenish and refresh your love for READING
Pointing at the PLOT • Plot is: • The sequence of actions occurring because of a problem or a conflict. • The sequence of actions in a literary work. Generally, plots are built around a conflict. Plot usually progresses through stages: exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution.
Exposition – introduces the story’s characters, setting, and conflict Rising action – develops the conflict with complications and twists Climax – the emotional high point of the story Falling Action – shows what happens to the characters after the climax Resolution – shows how the conflict is resolved or how the problem is solved or how the story ends.
Examining the EXPOSITION. • Exposition: • Usually at the beginning of a story, the exposition gives necessary background information about characters, setting, and situation.
RISING ACTION • Rising Action: • The second stage of the plot. • Complications or incidents arise that demonstrate the conflict and make it difficult for the characters to solve
THE CLIMAX • Climax: • The turning point, (the moment of highest intensity) which shows how the problem of the story will be solved
The Falling Action • Falling Action: • The events or incidents happening because of/after the climax
Resolution Resolution: • The conclusion of the story • Settles the conflicts • The reader’s questions may be answered
Symbolism • Symbolism: • A person, place or thing that stands for something beyond itself
CONFLICT • Conflict: • The struggle between two opposing forces (i.e. the DRAMA) • May be INTERNAL or EXTERNAL
Conflict External Conflict Internal Conflict Internal Conflict: a struggle within a character Man vs. Self • External Conflict: a struggle against an outside force • Man vs. Man • Man vs. Nature • Man vs. Society
Pointing at the Point of View • Point of view: • The perspective from which the story is told.
First Person VS. Third Person • First Person P.O.V.: • A character that is involved in the story tells it (I, me, my) • The reader sees it through this person’s eyes as he/she experiences it and only knows what he/she feels • Third Person P.O.V.: - An uninvolved narrator outside the story (he/she/they) - An omniscient (all-knowing) voice that tells the story and includes the feelings of all characters
Getting into character… • Characterization • Techniques used to create or develop characters & figures in the story.
Types of Characters • Round Characters: • Complex, multidimensional, have many sides and personality traits. • Dynamic Characters: - Changes occur in personality, attitude or maturity. • Flat Characters: • One sided, often stereotypical. • Static Characters: • Do not change throughout the entire story.
PROTAGONIST The Hero of the story The person or thing that we are ‘cheering’ for
ANTAGONIST • The person or thing that the protagonist is fighting against • The antagonist tries to stop the protagonist from achieving their goal
Setting • The time and place where action occurs • It can be an imaginary or real place. Time can be past, present or future
Theme • Theme: • The message or insight about life or human nature that readers can apply to life. Some themes are stated, some are implied Defying Gravity
Imagining the Imagery • Imagery: Words and phrases appealing to the senses, especially sight Tactile (touch), Visual (sight), Auditory (sound), Olfactory (taste), Gustatory (smell) SHOW, DON’T TELL!
“It’s not what you say. It’s HOW you say it.” Tone Vs. Mood Tone: • The writer’s attitude towards the subject • Tone can be sarcastic, sad, optimistic, etc. Mood: • The reader’s attitude as he/she reads the text • Mood can be funny, scary, sad, happy, etc.
Figurative Language • Simile a comparison of two unlike objects using “like” or “as” • Metaphor a comparison of two unlike objects without using “like” or “as” • Personification giving human qualities to an object or thing • Hyperbole an overly-exaggerated statement
Isn’t it Ironic….Don’t You Think? • Irony: • A contrast between appearance and reality. • Verbal Irony: • Saying/writing one thing and meaning the opposite. • Dramatic Irony: • - When the reader knows more than the characters in the story.