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Hindlimb Imaging Quiz. Developed by: Sorcha McCaughley & Mark Brims Approved by: Alison King & Maureen Bain Supported by: The Chancellor’s Fund. Hindlimb Imaging Quiz. START! Developed by: Sorcha McCaughley & Mark Brims Supported by: The Chancellor’s Fund. Dog Hindlimb Choose a region:

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hindlimb imaging quiz

Hindlimb Imaging Quiz

Developed by: SorchaMcCaughley & Mark Brims

Approved by: Alison King & Maureen Bain

Supported by: The Chancellor’s Fund

hindlimb imaging quiz1

Hindlimb Imaging Quiz

START!

Developed by: Sorcha McCaughley & Mark Brims

Supported by: The Chancellor’s Fund

slide3
Dog Hindlimb

Choose a region:

Pelvis Q1

Pelvis Q2

Stifle Q3

Stifle Q4

Tarsus Q5

Foot Q6

Comparative Hindlimb

Choose a species:

Cat

Horse

Horse 2

Ruminant

Pig

dog pelvis q1
Dog Pelvis Q1

Canine

  • (i) What is A?
    • Ischium
    • Ilium
    • Acetabulum
  • (ii) What is B?
    • Ischium
    • Ilium
    • Acetabulum
  • (iii) What is C?
    • Ischiatic Arch
    • Acetabulum
    • Pubis
  • (iv) What is D?
    • Acetabulum
    • Obturator Foramen
    • Symphysis Pelvis

A

C

D

B

correct
 Correct 

Feline

Iliac Crest

Wing of Ileum

  • Yes! A is the Ilium!
  • Here is another example.
  • Try (ii)!
  • Choose a new question.

Body of Ileum

Canine

Iliac Crest

Wing of Ileum

Body of Ileum

incorrect
 Incorrect 

Canine

  • No, A is not the Ischium.
  • The Ischium is labelled in this x-ray.
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Ischiatic Tuberosity

Ischium

incorrect1
 Incorrect 
  • No, A is not the Acetabulum.
  • The Acetabulum is labelled in this x-ray.
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Acetabulum & Head of Femur

correct1
 Correct 

Canine

  • Yes! B is the Ischium!
  • Here is another example.
  • Try (iii)!
  • Choose a new question.

Ischiatic Tuberosity

Ischium

incorrect2
 Incorrect 

Feline

Iliac Crest

Wing of Ilium

  • No, B is not the Ilium.
  • The Ilium is labelled in these x-rays.
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Body of Ilium

Canine

Iliac Crest

Wing of Ilium

Body of Ilium

incorrect3
 Incorrect 
  • No, B is not the Acetabulum.
  • The Acetabulum is shown in this x-ray.
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Acetabulum & Head of Femur

correct2
 Correct 
  • Yes! C is the Acetabulum!
  • Here is another example.
  • Try (iv)!
  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Acetabulum & Head of Femur

incorrect4
 Incorrect 
  • No, C is not the Ischiatic Arch.
  • The Ischiatic Arch is labelled in this x-ray.
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Ischiatic Arch

incorrect5
 Incorrect 
  • No, C is not the Pubis.
  • The Pubis is labelled in this x-ray.
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Pubis

correct3
 Correct 

Canine

  • Yes! D is the Obturator Foramen!
  • Here is another example.
  • What nerve passes through the obturator foramen and what is its function?
  • Answer
  • Try Dog Pelvis Q2!
  • Choose a new question.

Obturator Foramen

answer
Answer
  • The obturator nerve passes through the obturator foramen.
  • It supplies the adductor muscles of the hindlimb.

Go Back!

incorrect6
 Incorrect 
  • No, D is not the Acetabulum.
  • The Acetabulum is labelled in this x-ray.
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Acetabulum & Head of Femur

incorrect7
 Incorrect 
  • No, D is not the Symphysis Pelvis.
  • The Symphysis Pelvis is labelled in this x-ray.
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Symphysis Pelvis - unfused

dog pelvis q2
Dog Pelvis Q2

Canine

  • (i) What is A?
    • Humerus
    • Femur
    • Tibia
  • (ii) What is B?
    • Head of Femur
    • Greater Trochanter
    • Greater Tubercle
  • (iii) What is C?
    • Greater Tubercle
    • Head of Femur
    • Greater Trochanter

B

C

A

correct4
 Correct 
  • Yes! A is the Femur!
  • Here is another example.
  • Try (ii)!
  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Femur

incorrect8
 Incorrect 
  • No, A is not the Humerus.
  • Remember: the Humerus is in the Forelimb!
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Scapula

Humerus

incorrect9
 Incorrect 
  • No, A is not the Tibia.
  • Remember: the Tibia is located between the stifle and tarsal joints in the region known as the crus.
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Femur

Fibula

Tibia

This dog has some Osteoarthritis

correct5
 Correct 
  • Yes! B is the Head of the Femur!
  • Here is another example.
  • Try (iii)!
  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Head of Femur

incorrect10
 Incorrect 
  • No, B is not the Greater Trochanter.
  • This x-ray shows the Greater Trochanter.
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Greater Trochanter

incorrect11
 Incorrect 

Canine

  • No, B is not the Greater Tubercle.
  • The Greater Tubercle is shown in these x-rays.
    • Remember: it is found on the Humerus, in the Forelimb!
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Greater Tubercle

Greater Tubercle

Canine

correct6
 Correct 
  • Yes! C is the Greater Trochanter!
  • Here is another example.
  • Try Dog Stifle Q3!
  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Greater Trochanter

incorrect12
 Incorrect 

Canine

  • No, C is not the Greater Tubercle.
  • The Greater Tubercle is shown in these x-rays.
    • Remember: it is found on the Humerus, in the Forelimb!
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Greater Tubercle

Greater Tubercle

Canine

incorrect13
 Incorrect 
  • No, C is not the Head of the Femur.
  • The Head of the Femur is shown in this x-ray.
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Head of Femur

dog stifle q3
Dog Stifle Q3
  • (i) What is A?
    • Head of the Femur
    • Condyle of the Femur
    • Trochlear Ridge
  • (ii) What is B?
    • Fibula
    • Radius
    • Tibia
  • (iii) What is C?
    • Fibula
    • Ulna
    • Tibia
  • (iv) What is D?
    • Trochlear Ridge
    • TibialTuberosity
    • Tibialcondyle

D

A

C

B

correct7
 Correct 
  • Yes! A is the Condyle of the Femur!
  • Here is another example.
  • Try (ii)!
  • Choose a new question.

Condyles of Femur

incorrect14
 Incorrect 
  • No, A is not the Head of the Femur.
  • The Head of the Femur is located at the Proximal end of the Femur.
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Head of Femur

incorrect15
 Incorrect 

No, A is not the Trochlear Ridge of the Femur.

The Trochlear Ridge of the Femur is located on the Cranial aspect of the Femur.

Try again!

Choose a new question.

Trochlear ridge of femur

correct8
 Correct 
  • Yes! B is the Fibula!
  • Here is another example.
    • Remember: the Fibula is the smaller of the two bones distal to the stifle. It is non- weight bearing
  • Try (iii)!
  • Choose a new question.

Fibula

incorrect16
 Incorrect 
  • No, B is not the Radius.
  • Remember: the Radius is found in the Forelimb!
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Radius

incorrect17
 Incorrect 
  • No, B is not the Tibia.
  • Remember: the Tibia is the larger of the two bones distal to the stifle! It is weight bearing
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Tibia

correct9
 Correct 
  • Yes! C is the Tibia!
  • Here is another example.
    • Remember: the Tibia is the larger of the two bones distal to the stifle! It is weight bearing
  • Try (iv)!
  • Choose a new question.

Tibia

incorrect18
 Incorrect 
  • No, C is not the Fibula.
  • Remember: the Fibula is the smaller of the two bones distal to the stifle. It is non- weight bearing
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Fibula

incorrect19
 Incorrect 
  • No, C is not the Ulna.
  • Remember: the Ulna is found in the Forelimb!
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Ulna

correct10
 Correct 
  • Yes! D is the Tibial Tuberosity!
  • Here is another example.
  • Try Dog Stifle Q4!
  • Choose a new question.

Tibial Tuberosity

incorrect20
 Incorrect 
  • No, D is not the Trochlear Ridge.
  • The Trochlear Ridge is shown in this x-ray.
    • Remember: it is on the femur
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Trochlear Ridge

incorrect21
 Incorrect 

No, D is not the TibialCondyle.

The Tibialcondylesare shown in this x-ray.

Remember: there are 2 of them and they form part of the stifle joint

Try again!

Choose a new question.

Tibial

condyle

Tibialcondyle

dog stifle q4
Dog Stifle Q4
  • (i) What is A?
    • Popliteal sesamoid
    • Fabella
    • Patella
  • (ii) What is B?
    • Popliteal sesamoids
    • Fabellae
    • Patella
  • (iii) Do you know what the shock absorbing structures found in the stifle are called?
    • Answer.

A

B

correct11
 Correct 
  • Yes! A is the Patella!
  • Here is another example.
  • Try (ii)!
  • Choose a new question.

Patella

incorrect22
 Incorrect 
  • No, A is not the Popliteal Sesamoid.
  • The Popliteal Sesamoid is shown here
    • Remember: it is located in the Popliteus Muscle.
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Popliteal sesamoid

incorrect23
 Incorrect 
  • No, A is not a Fabella.
    • The Fabellae are shown here.
      • Remember: these are located in the tendons of origin of the gastrocnemius muscle
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Fabellae

correct12
 Correct 
  • Yes! B are the Fabellae!
  • Here is another example.
    • Remember: these are located in the tendons of origin of the gastrocnemius muscle
  • Try (iii)!
  • Choose a new question.

Fabellae

incorrect24
 Incorrect 
  • No, B is not the Popliteal Sesamoid.
  • The Popliteal Sesamoid is shown here
    • Remember: it is located in the Popliteus Muscle.
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Popliteal

incorrect25
 Incorrect 

Patella

  • No, B is not the Patella.
  • The Patella is found on the Cranial aspect of the Stifle.
    • Remember: it is associated with the quadriceps muscle
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.
answer1
Answer
  • The shock absorbing structures inside the stifle joint are the Menisci (*).
  • Did you know: a common causes of hindlimb lameness in dogs is Cranial Cruciate Ligament (+) Rupture.
  • This often also causes the Menisci to tear although this may go unnoticed.
  • Try Dog Tarsus Q5!
  • Choose a new question.

*

*

+

dog tarsus q5
Dog Tarsus Q5
  • (i) What is A?
    • Talus
    • Calcaneus
  • (ii) What is B?
    • Talus
    • Central tarsal bone
    • Fourth tarsal bone
  • (iii) What is C?
    • Third tarsal bone
    • Central tarsal bone
    • Fourth tarsal bone

A

C

B

correct13
 Correct 
  • Yes! A is Calcaneus!
  • Here is another example.
    • Remember: the common calcanean tendon inserts onto this bone
  • Try (ii)!
  • Choose a new question.

Calcaneus

incorrect26
 Incorrect 
  • No, A is not Talus.
  • The Talus is shown in this x-ray.
    • Remember: it articulates with the tibia to form the high motion component of the hock joint
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Talus

correct14
 Correct 
  • Yes! B is the Central Tarsal Bone!
  • Here is another example.
  • Try (iii)!
  • Choose a new question.

Central

incorrect27
 Incorrect 
  • No, B is not Talus.
  • The Talus is shown in this x-ray.
      • Remember: it articulates with the tibia to form the high motion component of the hock joint
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new region.

Talus

incorrect28
 Incorrect 
  • No, B is not the Fourth Tarsal Bone.
  • The Fourth Tarsal Bone is shown in this x-ray.
    • Remember: it spans the middle and distal rows of tarsal bones
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Fourth

correct15
 Correct 
  • Yes! C is the Fourth Tarsal Bone!
  • Here is another example.
  • Try Dog Foot Q6!
  • Choose a new region.

Fourth

incorrect29
 Incorrect 
  • No, C is not the Third Tarsal Bone.
  • The Third Tarsal Bone is shown in this x-ray.
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Third

incorrect30
 Incorrect 
  • No, C is not the Central Tarsal Bone.
  • The Central Tarsal Bone is shown in this x-ray.
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Central

dog foot q6
Dog Foot Q6
  • (i) What is A?
    • Proximal Phalanx
    • Middle Phalanx
    • Distal Phalanx
  • (ii) What is B?
    • 3rd Metacarpal Bone
    • 3rd Metatarsal Bone
  • (iii) What is C?
    • Ungual Process
    • Proximal Sesamoids
    • Digital pad

B

C

A

correct16
 Correct 
  • Yes! A is the Proximal Phalanx!
  • Here are others examples.
  • Try (ii)!
  • Choose a new question.

Proximal Phalanx

incorrect31
 Incorrect 
  • No, B is not the Middle Phalanx.
  • The Middle Phalanx is shown in this x-ray.
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Middle Phalanx

Middle Phalanx

incorrect32
 Incorrect 
  • No, A is not the Distal Phalanx.
  • The Distal Phalanx is shown in this x-ray.
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Distal Phalanx

Distal Phalanx

correct17
 Correct 
  • Yes! B is the 3rd Metatarsal Bone!
  • Here is another example.
  • Try (iii)!
  • Choose a new question.

3rd Metatarsal

incorrect33
 Incorrect 
  • No, B is not the 3rd Metacarpal Bone.
  • Remember: Carpal refers to the Carpus which is found in the Forelimb!
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

3rd Metacarpal

correct18
 Correct 
  • Yes! C is the Proximal Sesamoids!
  • Here is another example.
    • Remember: these are located on the plantar aspect of the metatarso-phalangeal joint
  • Look at the Comparative Section!
  • Choose a new question.

Proximal Sesamoids

incorrect34
 Incorrect 
  • No, C is not the Ungual Process.
  • The Ungual Process is shown in this x-ray.
    • Remember: its function is to support the structure of the claw
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Ungual Process

incorrect35
 Incorrect 
  • No, C is not the Digital Pad.
  • Digital pads are shown in this x-ray.
  • Try again!
  • Choose a new question.

Digital

pads

cat hindlimb differences
Cat Hindlimb - Differences

The Patella, in the cat, is more pointed than in the dog.

2

3

4

1

The cat’s pelvis is more box-shaped than the dog’s.

1. Patella – always present

2. Medial fabella – small/may be absent

3. Lateral fabella - usually present

4. Poplitealsesamoid – may be absent

Horse Comparative!

horse hindlimb differences
Horse Hindlimb - Differences

Ca

Ta

Ce

4th

Splint bone

3rd

The 3rd Metatarsal bears weight.

The 2nd and 4th Metatarsal are non-weightbearing and fused to the 3rdMetatarsal bone - they are known as ‘splint bones’.

The 1st and 2nd Tarsal bones are fused. The rest are present.

Horse Comparative 2!

horse hindlimb differences 2
Horse Hindlimb - Differences 2

Proximal sesamoids

Distal Sesamoid or ‘Navicular’

Ruminant Comparative!

ruminant hindlimb differences
Ruminant Hindlimb - Differences

Central and 4th Tarsal bones are fused.

2nd and 3rd Tarsal bones are fused

Cow: Medial Trochlear

Ridge larger than lateral.

3rd and 4th Metatarsal bones are fused.

3rd and 4th digits are weight-bearing.

Pig Comparative!

pig hindlimb differences
Pig Hindlimb - Differences

All tarsal bones present.

3rdand 4thMetatarsal are not fused.

3rd and 4thdigits are weight-bearing.

2nd and 5th metatarsals present but non-weight bearing.

2ndand 5thdigits non-weight bearing - do not touch the ground!

Back to the Start!

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