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Week 2. Bias and Ethnocentrism Five Filters of Propaganda. Bias. Each person and each professor has their own perspective. Biology Gene Theory of Evolution Symbiogenesis Theory of Evolution. Both Sides to an Issue?. Some people want to give equal time to opposing views.

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week 2

Week 2

Bias and Ethnocentrism

Five Filters of Propaganda

  • Each person and each professor has their own perspective.
  • Biology
    • Gene Theory of Evolution
    • Symbiogenesis Theory of Evolution
both sides to an issue
Both Sides to an Issue?
  • Some people want to give equal time to opposing views.
    • Never just two sides.
  • “Balance” was ordered in coverage of civilian deaths in Afghanistan.
    • http://www.commondreams.org/headlines01/1031-02.htm
value neutral or objective
Value Neutral or Objective
  • Some professors, journalists, or others will say they are objective.
  • Beware!
    • They are either ignorant of their bias
      • Or
    • They are intentionally trying to deceive you.
  • Ethnocentrism is seeing and judging the world ONLY from your personal perspective.
  • Ethnocentrism also places ourselves in a superior position relative to other people in order to justify our actions.
five elements of ethnocentrism
Five Elements of Ethnocentrism
  • Viewing the Other as Inferior
  • Dehumanization
  • Civilizational Mission
  • Ideological Camouflage
  • Political Denial
viewing the other as inferior
Viewing the Other as Inferior
  • Biological Inferiority
  • Moral/Cultural Inferiority
  • Once a group is viewed as inferior, it is easy to dehumanize them.
    • Individuals in the group are seen as less than true people, lacking souls, humanity, culture, etc.
    • Derogatory names are used to characterize the group.
civilizational mission
Civilizational Mission
  • Because it believes it is superior, one group takes it upon itself to "civilize" the “inferior” people.
    • Manifest Destiny
    • White Man’s Burden
    • Crusade on Terrorism
ideological camouflage
Ideological Camouflage
  • The subjugation and ill-treatment of other people need justification.
  • Sham science
    • Bell Curve
    • Eugenics
political denial
Political Denial
  • Government denies responsibility in the mistreatment of a group of people.
five elements of ethnocentrism1
Five Elements of Ethnocentrism
  • Viewing the Other as Inferior
  • Dehumanization
  • Civilizational Mission
  • Ideological Camouflage
  • Political Denial
five filters of propaganda

Five Filters of Propaganda

Distortion in the Media

  • Five Filters of Propaganda
    • Sociology in Practice
  • Worthy and Unworthy Victims
students and education

Students and Education

More than 50% of students at four-year schools and more than 75% at two-year colleges lacked the skills to perform complex literacy tasks.

That means they could not … understand the arguments of newspaper editorials, compare credit card offers with different interest rates and annual fees or summarize results of a survey about parental involvement in school.


recent media studies
Recent Media Studies
  • “A new study based on a series of seven US polls conducted from January through September of this year reveals that before and after the Iraq war, a majority of Americans have had significant misperceptions and these are highly related to support for the war in Iraq.”
  • http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/articles/international_security_bt/102.php?nid=&id=&pnt=102&lb=brus
five filters in the propaganda model
Five Filters in the Propaganda Model
  • Concentration of Ownership
  • Advertising
  • “Sourcing” the News
  • Flak
  • Anti-Communism
concentration of ownership
Concentration of Ownership
  • 20 years ago, 50 companies controlled the vast majority of media resources. Now, it is five.
    • “These five huge corporations —
      • Time Warner,
      • Disney, (owns ABC)
      • Murdoch's News Corporation,
      • Bertelsmann of Germany, and
      • Viacom (formerly CBS)
    • — own most of the newspapers, magazines, books, radio and TV stations, and movie studios of the United States.” http://www.benbagdikian.com/
  • Advertising supports the costs of production for media outlets.
  • Outlets not able to attract advertisers are less able to compete.
  • Advertisers seek a “buying mood.”
  • Media outlets attempt to save money and time by relying on readily available sources for news.
  • Corporations, politicians and others provide press releases, press conferences and prepared videos for the media.
  • People and groups dissatisfied with media coverage will attempt to change coverage through complaints.
    • Complaints by pundits and editorial writers
    • Complaints by organized groups
    • Complaints by politicians
anti communism
  • While the authors wrote about the concept of anti-communism, we can see its application today.
  • Both the terms “liberal” and “terrorism” are used to dichotomize debate.
    • You are either with us, or against us.
  • The fear of terrorism is used to promote policies.
division of coverage
Division of Coverage
  • The Five Filters of Propaganda lead to a division in the coverage of issues.
  • Sources
    • Official US sources are favored.
    • Sources sympathetic to US interests given more coverage.
division of coverage1
Division of Coverage
  • Flak is used to ensure coverage sympathetic to US interests.
    • Coverage of issues and people sympathetic to US interests will be promoted.
    • Too much coverage of people unsympathetic to US interests will be met with Flak.
division of coverage2
Division of Coverage
  • Accusations of Terrorism and Liberal Bias
    • Association with terrorists are implied to delegitimate people who do not sympathize with US interests.
    • Coverage is compromised because journalists attempt to avoid accusations of a “liberal bias.”
worthy and unworthy victims
Worthy and Unworthy Victims
  • Worthy victims
    • Generous with gory details
    • Quotes of outrage and demands for justice
    • Front page and editorials
  • Unworthy victims
    • Low key – less emotional
    • Regretful and philosophical generalities of ever-present violence and tragedy of human life
    • Less prominent coverage and no editorial content denouncing murderers
rachel corrie and cnn
Rachel Corrie and CNN
  • No discussion of injuries. - "My back is broken, my back is broken"
  • “… "crack down" on pro-Palestinian peace activists, … whom it believes are breaking the law and assisting terrorist groups.” “The Israeli government has long argued that some peace activists help terrorist networks …”http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/05/03/cameraman.killed/index.html
  • "This is a group of protesters who are acting very irresponsibly. They are putting everyone in danger, the Palestinians, themselves, our forces, by intentionally placing themselves in a combat zone. We are checking the details of the incident and believe it to be a very regrettable incident.” http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/03/16/rafah.death/index.html
  • 7 articles including Rachel Corrie
    • Only 1 is dedicated to her
jessica lynch and cnn
Jessica Lynch and CNN
  • “Lynch suffered serious gunshot wounds”
    • Wednesday, April 2, 2003http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/04/01/sprj.irq.lynch.rescue/index.html
  • “No evidence of gunshot or stab wounds found”
    • Thursday, April 3, 2003http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/South/04/03/sprj.irq.rescue/index.html
  • Photos of Jessica during rescue and “senior photo”
  • Family history and extensive description of capture and rescue
  • 91 articles including Jessica Lynch from April 1, 2003 to August 24, 2006
coming up
Coming up
  • Comparison of News Article and Actual Event
  • Outfoxed