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Marc Mueller-Stoffels, PhD. Isolated Diesel Grids – Renewable Integration. Hybrid-Diesel Power Generation. Diesel-only cost: between 0.35 and 1+ $/kWh Wind in rural AK Average $10,700/kW Large, commercial wind farms: < $3000/kW PV in rural AK We don’t really know the cost yet

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hybrid diesel power generation
Hybrid-Diesel Power Generation
  • Diesel-only cost: between 0.35 and 1+ $/kWh
  • Wind in rural AK
    • Average $10,700/kW
    • Large, commercial wind farms: < $3000/kW
  • PV in rural AK
    • We don’t really know the cost yet
    • Target: $5000/kW – makes it commercially viable in many places (@ avoided fuel cost)
  • Note
    • Diesel generators: (relatively) low initial investment, but then…
    • RE sources: high initial investment, but then…
customer requirements
Customer Requirements
  • Rural AK sees large variability in demand
    • Mostly high winter loads
    • But, in some places, industry drives high summer demand
  • Power has to be of decent quality
  • Outages are always unacceptable
    • Especially at 50 below
diesel powerhouse
Diesel Powerhouse
  • Generally:
    • Provides prime power (forms the grid, i.e., one diesel is always on)
    • Provides electricity AND heat
    • Diesels have sweet spot, outside this, efficiency suffers
  • Usually pretty well ‘dialed-in’
    • 100+ years of operation
  • Cost break-down
    • Fuel cost
    • Cost of operation
    • Investment
integration of re basic rules
Integration of RE – Basic Rules
  • Operational envelope of diesel generators
    • Never under-load diesels (20 to 40%)
    • Do not risk overload (>110%) [keep spinning reserve]
    • Sudden large load swings should be avoided
  • Without control of RE resource
    • Only small amounts of RE power can be allowed
    • Example: distributed PV can quickly become detrimental
hybrid grid control source management
Hybrid-Grid Control : Source Management
  • Curtail RE source to remain in operational envelope
  • Spinning reserve:
    • Largest sudden load rise, or amount of RE on grid, which ever is bigger
hybrid grid control load management
Hybrid-Grid Control: Load Management
  • Loads that are controlled by the utility do not require spinning reserve
    • Examples: Pumps, electric heaters, cooling equipment
  • Allows operation with less or smaller diesel generators
  • Maximizes RE power use
diesel off game changer
Diesel-off -- Game Changer?
  • Affordable Energy Storage
    • < 0.10 $/kWh
  • Need to replace diesel by power-electronics as prime mover
  • Diesel-off mode
    • Additional 30% fuel savings
    • Reduced O&M cost
    • Permanent diesel-off – cheaper diesel packages
and the value of re power
And the value of RE power?
  • Displaced Fuel
    • Not a linear function, but direct savings
  • Reduced O&Mon diesels
    • ‘Small’ maintenance can be scheduled based on gallons of fuel used
  • Hedging
    • Volatile fossil fuel prices are a direct risk
    • RE power can hedge against variation (usually fixed cost)
questions
Marc Mueller-Stoffels, PhD

Research Assistant Professor

Alaska Center for Energy and Power

University of Alaska Fairbanks

mmuellerstoffels@alaska.edu

Questions?