What is a Concept Map? Concept maps often include: • concepts or ideas, enclosed in circles or boxes. • represented in hierarchical fashion • relationships between concepts, indicated by a connecting line. • words on the line specify the precise relationship • cross-links (relationships between concepts in different domains of the concept map). • specific examples of events or objects • help clarify meaning of a given concept From “The Theory Underlying Concept Maps and How to Construct Them,” by Joseph D. Novak. Online version available athttp://wwwcmap.coginst.uwf.edu/info/.
Concept Map Sample… Novak, J.D. & Gowin, D.B. (1984). Learning How to Learn. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Concept Map Sample… Fromhttp://www.inspiration.com/diagrams/ed/conceptmap2.html. Map by Paul Rutherford.
Not a Concept Map Sample… Life-Cycle Analysis Flow Chart
Uses of Concept Mapping • BRAINSTORMING SUPPORT: Provides format and direction for planning and generating new ideas. • STUDY AID: Facilitates effective note taking, summarizes newly learned concepts, or lends some structure or activity to reflective thinking. • INSTRUCTIONAL TOOL: Serves as visual aid or schematic summary, demonstrates complex relationships, or provides a means for assessment of understanding or isolation of misconceptions.
Focus: Pre- and post-lesson assessments • Help students and educators recognize what students already know. • Focus students on subject at hand, and help them frame their own learning. • Allow educators to catch misconceptions early.
Learning as Conceptual Change • Students have pre-existing ideas, mental models, vocabulary, etc. (correct or incorrect). • Student must understand relationships between existing ideas and concepts and newly-presented meanings for internalization to occur. • Second language acquisition example.
Examples from Science & Technology for the Environment Students were asked to: • draw concept maps of key ideas in assigned readings. • draw simple concept maps, then elaborate and refine based on new information. • Atmospheric System Example • draw two concept maps comparing and contrasting environmental issues. • Tropospheric Ozone vs. Stratospheric Ozone Depletion • Global Climate Change vs. Ozone Depletion • examine complexities of environmental problems using concept maps. • Causes of extinction of a frog species
Application Green Building Discussion -- “What is a Green Building?” • What are the benefits of this sort of exercise for students? For teachers? • What are some possible shortcomings or limitations of concept maps?
Discussion Questions? Comments? Concerns?
Links to Concept Mapping Websites General / How To: • http://classes.aces.uiuc.edu/ACES100/Mind/CMap.html - Offers general background information, as well as useful discussion of different types of concept maps. • http://www.ed.gov/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed407938.html - General information. • http://www.coun.uvic.ca/learn/program/hndouts/map_ho.html - General information. • http://www.inov8.engr.psu.edu/faculty/cmap.htm - General information, useful discussion of how to create concept maps. • http://www.mindtools.com/mindmaps.html - "Improving Note Taking with Concept Maps." Software: • http://www.inspiration.com - Most commonly used concept-mapping software. Site also contains information about theory, and instruction on mapping methods (see, for example, http://www.inspiration.com/inspclass.html). • http://www.mindmapper.com - Alternate concept-mapping software. Theory: • http://wwwcmap.coginst.uwf.edu/info/- "The Theory Underlying Concept Maps and How To Construct Them," by J. D. Novak. Examples / Uses: • http://www.sar.usf.edu/~edorsz/ - Programmable concept map that demonstrates their potential complexity and possible application. • http://www.schoolnet.edu.mo/general/biology/temp/cmap/respir.html - Map of cellular respiration. • http://ksi.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/articles/ConceptMaps/CM.html#Section1 - Discusses practical application of concept map as a hypertext tool.
Additional Resources • Ausubel, D. P. (1963). The Psychology of Meaningful Verbal Learning. New York: Grune and Stratton. • Ausubel, D. P. (1968). Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. • Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives--The Classification of Educational Goals. New York: David McKay. • Hyerle, D. (1996). Visual Tools for Constructing Knowledge. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. • Novak, J.D. & Gowin, D.B. (1984). Learning How to Learn. New York: Cambridge University Press.