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Samuel Richardson and Henry Fielding. The Novel. In the 18th century, the English novel was still fairly new. Authors were still experimenting with different styles of writing. Samuel Richardson. 1689 - 1761. Samuel Richardson. Richardson wrote Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded in 1740.

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the novel
The Novel
  • In the 18th century, the English novel was still fairly new.
  • Authors were still experimenting with different styles of writing.
samuel richardson4
Samuel Richardson
  • Richardson wrote Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded in 1740.
  • It soon became a bestseller.
instruct and entertain
Instruct and entertain
  • Richardson wanted to give moral instruction to young people through Pamela.
  • But he wanted to do it in the form of a NOVEL not a CONDUCT BOOK.
  • Conduct books were lists of instructions to the reader on how to lead a good, moral life.
the plot of pamela
The plot of Pamela
  • Pamela is a beautiful young servant working for a man that Richardson calls Mr. B.

Mr B becomes obsessed with beautiful Pamela and makes several attempts to seduce her. Eventually he kidnaps her and holds her hostage in his country house.

pamela
Pamela
  • Pamela will not give up her VIRTUE (willingly sleep with her master).
  • He comes very close to attempting to rape her, but ultimately does not.
  • Eventually he proposes marriage to her, and this is her “reward” for her virtue.
social position
Social Position
  • Pamela is a servant from a very poor family and Mr. B is a wealthy, upper class man, so the idea of them getting married was very controversial.
  • Even though Mr. B has attacked her and kidnapped her, by the end of the novel, Pamela is supposed to have fallen in love with him.
pamela9
Pamela
  • Pamela is an EPISTOLARY novel, this is a story told through LETTERS.
  • Most of Pamela’s letters are to her mother.
  • This style of writing became very popular because it allowed the reader to see the private life of the characters.
enthusiastic support for pamela
Enthusiastic support for Pamela
  • In 1741 a 2nd edition of Pamela was printed with 32 additional pages of compliments to the author and the novel.
  • It was probably this that inspired Henry Fielding to write his parodies.
henry fielding

Henry Fielding

1707 - 1754

parody
PARODY

A literary work that imitates the characteristic style of an author for comic effect or ridicule.

henry fielding13
Henry Fielding
  • Henry Fielding wrote two PARODIES of Pamela.
  • The first was Shamela, the second was Joseph Andrews
shamela
Shamela
  • Fielding wrote Shamela in 1741 after the second edition of Pamela was published.
slide16
The first joke is the title: A “sham” is something FALSE.

Fielding is saying that the virtuous Pamela is in fact a liar or a “sham.”

  • In Shamela instead of trying to preserve her virtue, Shamela is trying to trick her master into marriage.
  • Fielding calls Mr. B. Mr. Booby. Booby a name given to rich country people which meant “fool.”
slide17
Like Pamela, Shamela is a collection of letters, mostly between Shamela and her mother.
  • Fielding uses many examples from the original Pamela and changes them to make the novel seem ridiculous.
joseph andrews
Joseph Andrews
  • Fielding wrote Joseph Andrews in 1742.
  • It is a parody of Pamela, but it is also a complete novel in its own right.
slide20
Joseph Andrews is supposed to be the brother of Richardson’s Pamela.
  • He uses her as inspiration for his own VIRTUE.
  • Like Pamela he is a servant, and he must resist the advances of his mistress.
  • His mistress is supposed to be the aunt of Pamela’s husband Mr. B
the plot of joseph andrews
The plot of Joseph Andrews
  • BOOK ONE:
  • Joseph Andrews is a handsome, clever, virtuous servant.
  • His mistress begins to fall in love with him and after her husband dies she tries to seduce him.He will not begin an affair with her and so she fires him.
slide22
BOOK TWO
  • Joseph sets out from the house.
  • He is planning to travel from London to his home town where his fiancée Fanny lives.
  • He is mugged and beaten and taken to an inn where he meets his friend Parson Adams.
  • Meanwhile Fanny has set out to come to London to see Joseph.
  • Parson Adams saves Fanny from being attacked and then her attackers accuse them of robbery. They are almost arrested but manage to escape.
  • Joseph, Parson Adams and Fanny are reunited.
slide23
BOOK THREE
  • They meet a man called Mr. Wilson who tells them the story of his life.
  • He mentions that many years ago his three year old son was stolen from the garden.
slide24
BOOK FOUR
  • They arrive home, and Lady Booby has also arrived in the parish.
  • Her nephew arrives having married Pamela.
  • A peddler arrives in the village claiming that Fanny was a child stolen from Joseph and Pamela’s parents as a child.
  • This would make Fanny and Joseph Brother and sister!!
slide25
Joseph’s parents arrive and his mother reveals that Fanny was stolen, but Joseph was left behind in her place.
  • Joseph is the long-lost son of Mr. Wilson!!!
  • Joseph and Fanny are married.
slide26
Fanny, Joseph and Parson Adams are all virtuous characters in a world of cheats and liars.
  • Even though it is a parody, Fielding, like Richardson is instructing the reader on how to be a good person.
tom jones
Tom Jones
  • Fielding wrote Tom Jones in 1749.
  • It is similar to Joseph Andrews as Tom, like Joseph must go on a long journey encountering problems and confusion along the way
  • But Tom is a more believable character than Joseph.
the plot of tom jones
The plot of Tom Jones
  • Tom Jones is found as a baby on the doorstep of the kind and wealthy Squire Allworthy.
  • Squire Allworthy lives with his sister who marries a man named Captain Blifil.
  • They have a son and young Blifil and Tom are raised together.
slide29
Tom is wild and fun-loving and Blifil is pious and mean.
  • Tom loves Sophia Western, who lives on the neighbouring property.
  • Blifil also wants to marry Sophia because she is rich.
  • Blifil tells Allworthy lies about Tom, and he is banished from the house.
slide30
Sophia also runs away because she doesn’t want to marry Blifil.
  • Tom begins searching for her, having a number of affairs with other women on the way.
  • Ultimately Tom and Sophia are reunited.
slide31
Squire Allworthy realises that he was lied to about Tom, and also finds out that Tom is his sister’s son, born out of wedlock and placed of the doorstep.
  • Squire Allworthy and Tom are reunited as uncle and nephew.
  • Tom and Sophia are married.
the voice of the author
The voice of the author:
  • In both Joseph Andrews and Tom Jones, the author, is a character in his own right.
  • At the beginning of many of the chapters he “speaks” to the reader.
  • It is tempting to think that this is the voice of Henry Fielding, but it many ways he is a separate character.
slide33
An author ought to consider himself, not as a gentleman who gives a private, but rather as one who keeps a public inn, at which all persons are welcome for their money. In the former case, it is well known that the entertainer provides what fare he pleases; and though this should be very indifferent, and utterly disagreeable to the taste of his company, they must not find any fault; Now the contrary of this happens to the master of an inn. Men who pay for what they eat will insist on gratifying their palates, and if everything is not agreeable to their taste, will challenge a right to censure, to abuse, and to d—n their dinner without control.