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  1. Paper review R98229029 CHC

  2. [Van Loon and Shea, 1985/1987] • Covarying warm SST and low SLP anomalies in the western and central subtropical South Pacific during the year prior to El Nino, finding them propagating eastward into the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean during the following El Nino year.

  3. [Simmonds and Jacka, 1995; Yuan and Martinson, 2000] • Observing interannual SIE anomalies in the eastern Indian and western Pacific sector of Southern Ocean leading El Nino by 1 to 2 years.

  4. [White and Peterson , 1996; Jacobs and Mitchell, 1996] • The slow eastward propagating of seasonal and interannual SST and SLP anomalies spanned the latitude domain in the South Pacific Ocean from the tropics near 20°S to the sea ice edge around Antarctica near 65°S , presaging the ACW observed from 40°S to 65°S over the same domain from 1982 to 1995.

  5. [Yasunari, 1987; Wang, 1995; Tourre amd White, 1997; White amd Cayan, 2000] • ACW propagate slowly eastward across the tropical Indian and western and central Pacific oceans, influencing the phase and magnitude of El Nino in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean during following year.

  6. [White and Cayan, 2000] • GEW propagate eastward across the Indo-Pacific Ocean alone the mean path of the ITCZ, providing a delayed positive feedback to El Nino/La Nina in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean.

  7. [White and Peterson, 1996; White and Cayan, 2000] • Atmospheric and oceanic teleconnections link the ACW in the Southern Ocean and the GEW in the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean.

  8. [White et al., 2002] • Oceanic teleconnection provides appositive feedback to the GEW in the Warm Pool north of Australia, producing a resonant interaction between the GEW and ACW that reinforce the amplitudes of both via a global feedback loop in the southern hemisphere that takes ~4 years to complete. Thus it comes as no surprise that the GEW and ACW are linked to one another over most of the southern hemisphere.

  9. [Hickey, 1975] • Before 1977, the evolution of the 1958, 1969, and 1973 El Nino , associated with northward propagating of warm ST anomalies along the west coast of South America to the equator.

  10. [Wang, 1995] • El Nino prior to 1977 deriving from eastward phase propagating of SST/SLP wave propagating eastward across the subtropical South Pacific Ocean , leading the equator ward propagating along the west coast of South America. • After 1977, the evolution of the 1983, 1987, 1992 El Nino initiated by the slow eastward propagating of a couple SST/SLP wave propagating eastward along the tropical Pacific Ocean from the Warm Pool north of Australia.

  11. [White and Annis, 2004] • The evolution of the ACW is different before and after 1997.Before 1977, El Nino was initiated by covarying warm ST and low SLP anomalies in ACW propagating equator ward along the eastern boundary to the equator. After 1977 El Nino was initiated by covarying warm ST and low SLP anomalies in GEW/ACW propagating eastward across the tropical Indian and western and central Pacific Ocean.

  12. [Tourre and White, 1997] • The GEW appears to be initiated in the western tropical Indian Ocean by zonal atmospheric teleconnections associated with the tropical standing mode of ENSO.

  13. [Karoly, 1989] • The tropical standing mode of ENSO initiating anomalous Hadley cell activity in the western Pacific Ocean, with anomalous divergence in the subtropical limb initiating quasi-stationary Rossby waves in the mean upper level Westerly Wind. These quasi-stationary Rossby waves allow the tropical standing mode of ENSO to penetrate its influence into the eastern Pacific and western Atlantic sectors of the Southern Ocean along a great circle route extending from the subtropical ocean north of New Zealand through Drake Passage.