disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy childhood or adolescence n.
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DISORDERS USUALLY FIRST DIAGNOSED IN INFANCY,CHILDHOOD, OR ADOLESCENCE. Important Facts. Category of convenience – no intent of clear distinction between “adult’/“childhood” disorders Primarily diagnosed in regard to age not phenomenology Usually identified by others

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important facts
Important Facts
  • Category of convenience
    • – no intent of clear distinction between “adult’/“childhood” disorders
  • Primarily diagnosed in regard to age
    • not phenomenology
  • Usually identified by others
  • Children regarded as more malleable than adults
    • thus more amenable to treatment
  • Differential Diagnosis
    • diagnosis which nearly fits symptoms but must be ruled out
  • Necessary information = Knowledge of normal life-span development
making a diagnosis 7 steps
Making a Diagnosis: 7 Steps
  • Observation of diagnostic clues
    • Focus on behavior, cognitive ability, verbal responses, etc.
  • Screen the problem
    • Consider symptoms/behaviors indicating or excluding a specific diagnosis
  • Follow-up of preliminary impressions
    • Testing or ruling out “your” diagnostic assumptions
  • Confirmatory history
    • Gather pertinent information
  • Complete data base
    • Specific info relevant to diagnosis under consideration
  • Diagnosis
    • All information, including DD
  • Prognosis
    • Consider individual’s response to & motivation for treatment
clinical info necessary for diagnosis of disorders first evidenced in children adolescents
Times of developmental milestones

Capacity to communicate with other people

Language impairment

Capacity for human relationships

Quality of social interaction

Abnormal motor movements

Hyperactivity, inattention, or poor impulse

Abnormal behaviors (e.g., fire setting, cruelty to animals)

Enuresis or encopresis

Clinical Info Necessary for Diagnosis of Disorders First Evidenced in Children & Adolescents
understanding normal life span development
Understanding Normal Life-span Development
  • Allows identification of appropriate behaviors
    • at appropriate stages
  • Childhood problems
    • not to be viewed as downward extension of adult issues
  • Possible to diagnose children with some “adult” disorders as major depression or PTSD if adult criteria met
subcategories of diagnoses
Mental Retardation

Learning Disorders

Motor Skills Disorders

Communication Disorders

Pervasive Developmental Disorders

Attention-Deficit& Disruptive Behavior Disorders

Feeding & Eating Disorders of Infancy & Childhood

Tic Disorders

Elimination Disorders

Other Disorders – contains 5 diverse disorders

Subcategories of Diagnoses
predominant symptoms or deficits
Intellectual & cognitive impairment

Motor function impairment

Disruptive or self-injurious behavior

Information exchange

All MR & All LD

Motor Skills, Tic, & Stereotypic Movement Disorders

ADD & Disruptive Behavior, Feeding & Eating, Elimination, Separation Anxiety, Reactive Attachment Disorders

Pervasive Developmental, Communication Disorders, & Selective Mutism

Predominant Symptoms or Deficits
mental retardation axis ii
MENTAL RETARDATION (Axis II)
  • Significantly subaverage intellectual functioning
  • Based on test scores & adaptive behavior
  • Check present adaptive functioning in various areas
    • communication, self-care, academics, social etc
  • Cultural/ethnic considerations
  • Onset before 18 years of age
  • Criteria met for MR, diagnosis given regardless of presence of another disorder
  • Differentiate Mild MR from borderline intellectual functioning
    • careful consideration of all available information
some mr interventions
Some MR Interventions
  • Head Start Programs
    • may help prevent Mild MR
  • Applied behavior analysis (operant conditioning)
    • adaptive skills, communication, self-help, social & vocational
  • Cognitive behavior therapy
    • self-instructional training as in “Little Bear” pictures
  • Computer-assisted instruction
    • maintain attention, material individualized, repetitions helpful without boredom or loss of patience
learning disorders academic skills disorders
Learning Disorders (Academic Skills Disorders)
  • Academic functioning
    • below expected for chronological age, measured IQ, & age-appropriate education
  • Reading Disorder
  • Mathematics Disorder
  • Disorder of Written Expression
  • Learning Disorder NOS
    • criteria for any specific LD not met
a motor skills disorder
A Motor Skills Disorder
  • Developmental Coordination Disorder
  • Not due to general medical condition
  • Substantial impairments in motor coordination
    • Significantly interfering with academic achievement or daily activities
    • Marked delays in normal milestones as sitting, crawling, walking
    • Or clumsiness, poor performance in sports or poor handwriting
tic disorders motor function disorders
Tic Disorders – Motor Function Disorders
  • Tourette’s Disorder
    • Multiple motor tics & 1 or more vocal tics
    • Occur many times a day, nearly every day or intermittently for more than 1 year
  • Chronic Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder
  • Transient Tic Disorder
  • Tic Disorder NOS
  • Another Motor Function Disorder in the “Other” category
    • Stereotypic Movement Disorder
disruptive self injurious behavior disorders
Disruptive & Self-Injurious Behavior Disorders
  • Behaviors socially unacceptable or potentially harmful
  • Include:
    • Hyperactive, impulsive, inattentive, oppositional, defiant, impulsive, & disruptive behavior
    • Also abnormalities of eating & elimination
attention deficit disorders
Attention-Deficit Disorders
  • Criteria with code based on type
    • Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Type
    • Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominately Inattentive Type
    • Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominately Hyperactive-impulsive Type
    • Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder NOS
disruptive behavior disorders also nos
Conduct Disorder

Violation of basic rights of others or

Major age-appropriate societal norms abused

Manifested through

Aggression to people & animals

Destruction of property

Deceitfulness or theft

Seriousness violations of rules

Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Persistent patterns of negativistic, hostile, & defiant behaviors

Behaviors include

Temper loss, arguments with adults, defies to obey rules, deliberate annoying, blames others, easily annoyed by other, often angry & resentful, spiteful or vindictive

Disruptive Behavior Disorders (also NOS)
feeding and eating disorders diagnosable at point where health endangered
Feeding and Eating DisordersDiagnosable at Point Where Health Endangered
  • Disturbances of eating
    • eating nonnutritive substances
    • repeated regurgitation of food
    • failure or refusal to eat
  • Pica – repeatedly eating nonnutritive substances
  • Rumination Disorder – regurgitate & rechew
  • Feeding Disorder – failure to gain wt. Or loss of significant wt. over period of 1 mo. Due to not eating adequately (onset before 6)
elimination disorders
Elimination Disorders
  • Encopresis – passing feces into inappropriate places
    • Must be at least 4 yrs. old
  • Enuresis – repeated urination into beds or clothes
    • Criterion regulated occurrence
    • Or clinically significant distress/impairment is produced
    • Must be at least 5 yrs. old
slide18
Pervasive Developmental DisordersAutism, Rett’s, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, Asperger’s, & Pervasive Developmental NOS

Common elements:

  • Broad based impairment or loss of functions expected at that age
  • Three components covered: 
    • social interactions
    • communication
    • patterns of behavior, interests, activities
  • Patterns which may surface include:
    • restricted, repetitive, stereotypic
autism
Autism
  • Named "early infantile autism" from observations of an extreme autistic aloneness that, whenever possible, disregards, ignores, shuts out anything that comes to the child from the outside
  • Prior to age three
  • Abnormal functioning in at least one area:
    • social interaction
    • language by social communication
    • symbolic/imaginative play
autism treatment
Autism Treatment
  • Most successful technique is in intense behaviorally oriented programs.  
  • -Goals to work with are: social skills, breaking down tasks, eliminating maladaptive behaviors; medication. 
  • -Try to relieve symptoms and improve communication, social skills, and adaptive behavior
  • -Modeling and operant conditioning
  • Drug treatment
    • most common medication is haloperidol,
rett s disorder females only
Rett's Disorder (females only)
  • Normal functioning at birth & through first 5 months of life
    • between ages 5 months - 48 months - decelerated (decreased) head growth occurs
    • loss of previously acquired hand movement.
    • loss of social skills
    • difficult gait/movement
  • Usually medical intervention
childhood disintegrative disorder
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
  • Rare
  • Development normal first 2 years of life (distinguishing feature from autism)
  • A loss of ability (in autism abilities never developed) 
  • Often symptoms first noticed by parents
asperger s disorder
Asperger’s Disorder
  • Lack of interest in social action
  • Severe & sustained impairment in social interactions
  • Different from autism because no significant delay in language & communication
  • Some idiosyncratic features similar to autism; repetitive patterns of behavior, interests and activities
pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified nos
Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (NOS)
  • Severe & pervasive impairments in
    • Reciprocal social interactions
    • Communications skills
  • Or stereotypical behavior, interests, or activities
  • Criteria for Pervasive Development Disorder not met
communication disorders check if acquired or developmental
Expressive Language Disorder

Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Disorder

Phonological Disorder

Stuttering

Communication Disorder NOS

Communication Disorderscheck if acquired or developmental
other subcategory 5 diverse disorders
Other Subcategory – 5 Diverse Disorders
  • Stereotypic Movement Disorder -- repetitive, seemingly driven nonfunctional motor behavior
  • Separation Anxiety Disorder -- Inappropriate or excessive anxiety about separation from home or person of attachment
    • Onset before 18 years of age
  • Reactive Attachment Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood --Excessively inhibited, hypervigilant, ambivalent & contradictory responses to most social interactions
    • Or diffuse indiscriminate attachments to other people
    • Associated with pathogenic care
  • Selective Mutism – consistent failure to speak in speific social situations yet speaking in others
  • Disorder of Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence NOS – residual category where criteria for no specific disorder is met
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