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Globalisation and Gender. Structures and Objectives of the Lecture. Understand how processes of social and economic change are impacting on how we define Masculinity and Femininity To analyse the changing political economy of reproduction of reproduction and production (to link these processes).

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structures and objectives of the lecture
Structures and Objectives of the Lecture
  • Understand how processes of social and economic change are impacting on how we define Masculinity and Femininity
  • To analyse the changing political economy of reproduction of reproduction and production (to link these processes)
slide3
Section One: Construction of Gender

Section Two: Reconstruction of Reproductive Economy

Section Three: ‘Productive Economy’

construction of gender
Construction of Gender
  • One is not born a woman, one becomes one.

The Second Sex Simone de Beauvoir

Beauviour argues that throughout history women constructed as deviant other

slide5
It seems fairly uncontroversial to argue that idea of being male or female has little meaning outside social context
  • Within contemporary capitalism main institutions shaping meanings market (consumption), family and the religion (or its legacies)
slide6
In so far globalisation affects these institutions it cannot but effect perceptions of gender
  • Consumption: From the cradle to grave patterns of consumption are gendered.
  • Colours of Children's Clothes: Pink and Blue
slide7
Young Children's Toys: Guns, Action Man, Engineering.
  • Dolls ect
  • Older Children: Early Teen Magazines, Fashion
  • Football, Gadgets, Pornography
slide8
Adults: Friends, Sex in the City, Shoes etc
  • Cars, Gadgets etc
  • Through these acts of consumption we affirm our gender. These acts simultaneously tell us how to be a ‘good’ man/ women.
  • Through these acts of consumption we affirm our gender. These acts simultaneously tell us how to be a ‘good’ man/ women.
slide9
Globalisation is important not because it creates gendered patterns/norms of consumption but because it changes how these patterns and norms are formed.
  • Historically different notions of gender articulated in different milieu
slide10
Global (ised) cultural production sees concentration of processes of definition in certain key sites of production.
  • Global media industries create globalized norms of femininity and masculinity.
slide11
My example of what

it means to be male

when I was Frank

White (who also made

a big impression on

Biggie)

slide12
Family: I think important in context of globalisation is decline in nuclear family (which I shall return to the second section)
  • Religion: Even in post-religious societies. Moral codes derived from religions which prosobed gender roles
the reproductive economy
The Reproductive Economy
  • 1995: Non-market work value was $15 trillion ($11 trillion women’s labour)
  • Peterson argues that global capitalism can only function because of subventions from non-capitalist sector (allegory with world systems theory)
  • Constant struggle to define to privatise and socialise costs and sexual division of labour within the reproductive economy (university fees represent a privatisation of costs)
slide15
Globalisation undermining primarily unit of Fordist reproductive economy. The Nuclear Family.
slide16
Marriages per annum declined by roughly 50% between 1972 and 2005
  • 1 in 4 children are in lone parent families
  • 60% British adults are part of a couple 40% are not.
slide17
Crisis in mode of regulating sexual relationships and reproductive economy
  • My argument is ‘love’ as a regulatory mechanisms is in crisis
  • I define ‘love’ as the idea that possible to spend life with first person due in part to emotional commitments.
slide18
Product of a particular set of material circumstances that no longer exist (Fordism)
  • The new regime of accumulation is incommensurate with permanence (the image, flexible accumulation, consistent change). Physical movement!
slide19
Love is a destructive concept

(1) Always been gendered (dark side)

(2) More problematic now because it retains value as a regulatory ideal but it is a ideal without material supports

slide20
We in a interregnum. Hopefully, a new regime of regulation develops that stresses realism and gender equality.
  • The crisis of love linked to a crisis in fertility(1.7 UK). Also contradictory demands of capital!
slide21
Difficult to generalise regarding the impact of changes in reproductive economy on gender division of labour (although rise in one parent family suggest exploitation of women getting more intense)
  • It seems likely functions of reproduction increasing be put in state/ market sectors (see next section).
productive economy
Productive Economy
  • Many key ‘globalising industries’ are highly feminised.
  • Tourism!
  • Female dominated employment. Also selling country through images of national Femininity.
  • Source of National Competitiveness!
  • Tourism and also sex industry
slide24
Gender played a key role in global restructuring
  • Third World “Factory Girl”
  • Construction of Norms of Productive Female (Combine specific ideas of race, Femininity, Global capital, Class): Docile, Capable of Competitive Work, Nimble.
  • Norms limit progress for key females
slide25
Transformation from Fordism to Post-Fordism structured by pre-existing social structures.
  • Leading to increasing diversity in the economic experience of gender
  • Elite women and ‘poor women’
slide26
Elite women may enjoy similar experience to men because capacity to transfer reproduction costs in poor (often foreign employees). Transfer of activities from household to the market
  • Although professional women tend to be disproportional affected by state restructuring (as concentrated in the state sector. USSR women doctors)
slide27
Poor Women: Skills frequently devalued as ‘natural’. Bottom of the Post-Fordist pile.
  • Also disproportionally effected by ‘informalisation’
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Globalisation is effecting how we define ourselves as Men and Women
  • It is also reshaping gender division of labour (although in this it builds upon existing social understandings)
slide29
Gender constructs are critical to whole process of restructuring
  • No real value in arguing globalisation is good/bad for men/women as this ignores other social divisions and diversity of experiences.
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