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Delayed Independence. Angola- Portuguese colony Feb1961 riots in Luanda as members of Movimento Popular de Libertacao de Angola- MPLA tried to free political prisoners from city prison Luanda White population went on rampage attacking black people

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Delayed independence
Delayed Independence

Angola- Portuguese colony

Feb1961 riots in Luanda as members of Movimento Popular de Libertacao de Angola- MPLA tried to free political prisoners from city prison

Luanda White population went on rampage attacking black people

March 1961 Revolt broke out in Northern Angola 6,000 African loyalist $ 2000 whites killed by suppoters of Uniao Das Poplacoes de Angola -UPA led by Holden Roberto. This was the largest number of whites killed in any anti- colonial struggle at a time. UPA operated from Zaire and Roberto was influenced by Lumuba


UPA was supported by Bakongo people –lived both sides of Angola and Zaire

1962 UPA merged with other party to form Frente Nacional de

Libertacao de Angola -FNLA adopted guerrilla tactics.

Portuguese were totally unprepared and had to seek help from

Portugal of 50,000 troops who suppressed the revolt and killed over 50,000 Africans.

1962& 64 Other revolts took place that were severely crushed,

Portuguese attacks were severely criticized in UN by all countries except SA and Spain

Minimal changes were made but Portuguese refused to decamp and remained in power

The struggle
The Struggle

  • The struggle in Angola took longer period due to 3 reasons;

  • 1.Portugese determination to suppress them

  • 2. Determination by the Nationalist to continue the struggle.

  • 3.Disunity among the Nationalists themselves.MPLA seen as urban

  • based and mostly composed of mesticos -Afro- Portuguese vs

  • FNLA supported by indigenous people mostly Bakongo in Northern Angola

  • 1966 Jonah Savimbi leaves FNLA and forms UNITA- Uniao

  • Nacional para a Independecia Total de Angola

  • Each of the three main groups started attacking Portuguese from differentdirections

  • Continued with guerrilla fight

Delayed independence

  • OAU Assisted in Angola especially the MPLA which was operating in Zambia and FNLA from Zaire.

  • By early1970s many of Portuguese forces had become Africanized and so were not cruel to the people

  • 1975 Transitional Govt set up and the parties consolidated their military and

  • political positions FNLA- North, MPLA Luanda & Mbundu hinterland, UNITA –South- Central districts

  • June 1975 Transitional govt collapsed

  • FNLA & UNITA supported by USA and China

  • MPLA Supported by Soviet

  • Cold civil war ensued Cuba sent troops as South African forces

  • invaded, forcing them to withdraw.

  • Strikes continued and Portuguese forces morale was low.

  • African countries intervened, Kaunda of Zambia, Mobutu of Zaire,

  • 1978 South Africa forces attacked again. US moved in to protect Cabindas oil and

  • later 1978 Angola attains independence 16 YEARS AFTER OTHERS

South africa
SOUTH AFRICA operating in Zambia and FNLA from Zaire.

  • Delayed Independence due to mineral resources. Dominant White regime.

  • Had large number of educated blacks by 1945 in the continent- black clergy , lawyers, doctors, teachers

  • South Africans also attended the Manchester Pan African Conference in 1945 and were influenced by Kwame and Kenyatta

  • 1945 ANC African National Congress demanded one man one vote and freedom of movement.

South africa1
SOUTH AFRICA operating in Zambia and FNLA from Zaire.

  • 1958 Kwame held the All African Conference in Ghana where Solidarity was pledged and agreed on non cooperation with SA.

  • 1950s decade of peaceful demonstrations and passive resistance led by,Albert Lithuli,

  • Oliver Tambo, Walter Sisuli,Mandela continued the struggle through the armed wing of ANC Umkonto we Siswe -Burning spear

  • March 1960 Macmillan told SA that a wind of change was blowing through

  • Africa, but 6 weeks later the Sharpeville massacre of school children took place.

  • The world was horrified by Apartheid and trading embargo put in place by

  • African countries, Murder condemned by the World

  • Struggle continued1963 Mandela and 6 others jailed for life in Robin Island

  • and joined Robert Sobukwe leader of PAC but ANC

  • continues the struggle

  • 1970s-1980s international pressure mounts on USA, Britain and other


Delayed independence
OAU operating in Zambia and FNLA from Zaire.

  • Platform for pressure to decolonize

  • Technical Planning .

  • Financial Assistance

  • .

  • Material assistance e.g. weapons and military clothes& medicine

  • Networking with the other countries

  • Military training for guerrillas

  • Operation bases for prescribed parties e.g. FRELIMO in TZ.

  • Psychological Support

  • Porous-Open boarder policy –people fleeing bad rulefind safe place in neighboring countries.

  • “OAU was the fire that cooked food behind the scene for people to eat”