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Job Analysis A Basic Human Resource Management Tool
The Nature of Job Analysis Job Analysis Defined Uses of Job Analysis Information Steps in Job Analysis Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information Writing Job Descriptions Writing Job Specifics Job Design – Concept & Approaches Chapter Outline
After Studying This Chapter,You Should Be Able To: • Discuss the nature of job analysis, including what it is and how it’s used • Use various methods of collecting job analysis information • Write job descriptions including summaries and job functions using the Internet and traditional methods • Write job specificationsusing the Internet as well as your judgment.
Job Analysis Terminologies • Before discussing the job analysis and job design in more detail, many related terms used in HR should be carefully defined. • The meaning of different terminologies related with job should be understood clearly to have better understanding of job analysis and job design.
Job Analysis Terminologies JOB • organizational goal achievement depends also on right persons doing rightjobsat right times and places. • The productivity, effectiveness and success of an organization depend largely on the jobs it carries. • what is this right job? Or simply job?
Job Analysis Terminologies • Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary : • Job: a) Paid Work – work for which you receive regular payment. b) Task: a particular task or piece of work that you have to do. c) Duty: a responsibility or duty and so on.
Job Analysis Terminologies • a job consists of a group of tasks that must be performed for an organisation to achieve its goals. • A jobis a collection of tasks and responsibilities that an employee is responsible to conduct. Jobs have titles. • A job is a type of position with the same basic tasks and with one or more persons performing them.
Job Analysis Terminologies • If we take an example of marketing officer's job, she/he will be performing various tasks under that job, such as: • Product related • Pricing related • Promotion related • Physical distribution related etc.
Job Analysis Terminologies • Thus, a job is a grouping of similar positions having common tasks, duties and responsibilities. • If a company employs ten marketing officers, then there are ten positions, but just one marketing officer's job.
Job Analysis Terminologies Position • A position is a collection of tasks, duties and responsibilities performed by one person. • There are at least as many positions as there are workers in the organization • Examples of position include Supervisor-Grade IV; Accounts Payable Clerk I; and Assistant professor, Level 2 etc.
Job Analysis Terminologies • Although the terms 'job' and 'position' are often used interchangeably in the literature, there is in fact a slight difference in meaning. • Thus, if a fast food store has seven individuals working as cashiers, there are sevenpositions associated with the one job of cashier.
Job Analysis Terminologies Task • A task is a distinct work activity carried out for a distinct purpose. • A task is typically defined as a unit of work, that is, a set of activities needed to produce some result, e.g., vacuuming a carpet, writing a memo, sorting the mail, etc. • Complex positions in the organization may include a large number of tasks, which are sometimes referred to as functions.
Job Analysis Terminologies Occupation • An occupation is a group of similar jobs found across organization. • Doctors, lawyers, engineers, managers, accountant, etc. are examples of occupations.
Concept of Job Analysis • HR Planning can provide an assessment of future staffing requirements • for example, an organization might forecast that it needs 100 more employees to handle development of new products and expansion in to new markets.
Concept of Job Analysis • But it is not enough simply to specify the numbers of additional staff that might be needed in the future, • the precise jobs that the new staff will undertake must be described and people must be recruited specifically for the particular tasks that need to be done.
Concept of Job Analysis • if we do not have idea about what employees need to perform, • then it will not be possible to formulate effective Human Resource Management programs
For example, if a company wanted to employ an Office Manager, the top executives will have to answer: • what behaviours, knowledge, skills, abilities, an office manager should possess? • What machine and equipment he or she will be using? • What will be the social environment of the job? • Recruitment and selection of the Office Manager will not be possible without knowing answers of these questions.
Another example, • If a manager of a factory thought about providing training to supervisors and labours, he must know • what exactly the supervisors and labours have to perform daily. • Without knowing what supervisors and lobours have to do everyday, the manager cannot develop the training progamme.
When employees know what is expected of them and management knows what they are doing, misunderstandings and conflicts are kept to minimum. • The fact that • what employees should do in an organization and • how their jobs are designed • significantly affect the employee's productivity and job satisfaction.
Well-educated and creative employees of today are always on the look out for more challenging, interesting and rewarding jobs. • In such conditions, it is pretty much essential to pre-determine what employees will have to perform and what kind of knowledge, skills and abilities are required to perform the job.
What is Job Analysis ? • Job Analysis provides organizations with this essential and valuable information. • Thus, job analysis could be considered as the starting point in the sound human resource management.
Definitions of JA • "A job analysis is a systematic exploration of the activitieswithin a job. It is a basic technical procedure, one that it used to define the duties, responsibilities, and accountabilities of a job." • DeCenzo/Robbins
Definitions of Job Analysis . . . • Job analysis is the process of collecting, analyzing and setting out information about the contentof jobs in order to provide the basis for a job description and data for recruitment, training, job evaluation and performance management. • Armstrong. M; A Handbook Of:- Human Resource Management, 7th Ed, 2000
Definitions of Job Analysis . . . • AJob analysis is a systematic way to gather and analyze information about the content and human requirement of jobs, and the context in which jobs are performed. • Mathis. R. L, Jackson. J. H; • Human Resource Management, 9th Ed, Publisher: South Western -College, 2000
Definitions of Job Analysis . . . • Job Analysis can be defined as “obtaining information about jobs.” • Fisher, Schoenfeldt & Shaw; Human Resource Management, 3rd Ed, 1996
Definitions of Job Analysis . . . • “Job Analysis isthe procedure through which you determine the duties of Positions or jobs and the characteristics of people who should be hired for them .” • Dessler. G; Human Resource Management, 8th Ed, Prentice Hall, 2000
Commonalties of Definitions - The Essence of The Concept Of Job Analysis • Collecting or gathering information about a job • Analyzing such information • Producing Job Descriptions and Job Specifications • The above processes are carried out in a systematic manner
What Information do I Collect? [What aspects of jobs are analyzed?] • Overall purpose • Work activities • Human behaviors • Machines, tools, equipment and work aids • Performance standards • Job context • Human requirements
Overall Purpose • Why the job exists and, in essence, • what the job holder is expected to contribute.
Duties & Tasks:Work activities • Cleaning • Selling • Teaching • Painting • How, why and when the activities are performed
Human behaviors • Sensing • Communicating • Deciding • Writing • Job demands • Lifting • Walking • Jumping jacks?
Machines, Tools, Equipment, Work Aids • Products made • Materials processed • Knowledge • Services
Performance Criteria The criteria, measures or indicators that enable an assessment to be carried out to ascertain the degree to which the job is being performed satisfactorily.
Job Context • Working conditions • Schedule • Organizational context • Social context
Human Requirements • Job-related knowledge and skills • Education • Training • Work experience • Personal attributes • Attitudes • Physical characteristics • Personality • Interests
When Job Analysis Is Performed? • When the organization is founded • When new jobs are created • When jobs are changed significantly as a result of new technologies, methods, procedures, or systems
What it Means to Work at U.S. Bancorp “Working at U.S. Bancorp means that each employee must take responsibility for providing outstanding service, understanding their individual jobs, and performing them at the highest level. In the end, it's the personal commitment of employees that helps us deliver results for our customers, company, shareholders and community.”