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Group Presentation on Schizophrenia By Karina, Tina, Annita and Dan. Topics to be covered. Topics to be Covered. Description / Definition of Schizophrenia by Karina. Description / Definition of Schizophrenia by Karina. Description / Definition. Schizophrenia Categories.

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Presentation Transcript
topics to be covered
Topics to be covered

Topics to be Covered

schizophrenia categories

Schizophrenia Categories

Schizophrenia can be categorized by the following:

Paranoid Schizophrenia:

Abnormal reality interpretation.

Delusions

Auditory & Visual Hallucinations.

Disorganized Schizophrenia:

Illogical & Incoherent thoughts & behavior.

Catatonic:

Extreme behaviors at two ends of the spectrum

Inability to speak, move, or respond OR

Over-excitement, hyperactivity, involuntary sounds or movements

Description / Definition

signs symptoms of schizophrenia by tina

Signs & Symptoms of Schizophreniaby Tina

Schizophrenia is a variable illness:

In some people, Schizophrenia appears suddenly and without warning.

For most it comes on slowly with subtle warning signs.

A gradual decline in functioning is often present long before the first episode.

Many friends and family members report knowing early on that something was not right with their loved ones.

general less obvious signs and symptoms
General & Less Obvious Signs and symptoms
  • Social Withdrawal
  • Decline in Motivation
  • Lack Of Drive
  • Diminished Emotional Response
  • Incoherent Speech / Broken Speech
  • Abnormal Personal Hygiene
slide9

Signs Of SchizophreniaPositive & Negative Signs

  • Positive Signs & Symptoms:
    • Are unusual thoughts and perceptions that often involve a loss of contact with reality.
    • These are symptoms people wouldn’t “normally” experience.
  • Negative Signs & Symptoms:
    • Represent a loss or decrease in emotions or behavioral abilities or a “blunted” effect.
common early signs of schizophrenia negative signs
Common Early Signs of Schizophrenia(Negative Signs)
  • Depression
  • Social Withdrawal
  • Hostility – Suspicion / Paranoia
  • Flat Expressions
  • Odd Statements
  • Inappropriate Response to Situations
  • Forgetfulness / Inability to Pay Attention
  • Over Sleeping / Lethargy
  • These signs are a definite cause for concern
symptoms of schizophrenia positive signs
Symptoms Of Schizophrenia(Positive Signs)
  • Physical:
    • Movement disorders - such as repeating movements, clumsiness or involuntary movements.
  • Cognitive signs and symptoms:
    • Problems making sense of information
    • Difficulty paying attention
    • Memory problems

…Continued

symptoms of schizophrenia positive signs12
Symptoms Of Schizophrenia(Positive Signs)
  • Delusions:
    • Beliefs not based on reality.
    • They may believe they are victims of conspiracy.
    • They may think they can read minds or have special powers.
  • Hallucinations:
    • Seeing and Hearing things that don’t exist.
  • Thought & Speech Disorders:
    • Disorganized speech.
    • Fragmented thinking.
    • Switching from one subject to another with no link or reference to previous subject or thought.
slide13

Coping With Schizophrenia

  • The following video gives some insight into one person coping in her life with Schizophrenia.
psychosocial treatment
Psychosocial treatment:

Psychosocial Treatment

  • Helps with communication, motivation, self-care, work, establishing and maintaining relationship with others.
  • Aids in patients sticking to their medication schedule.
  • Have the benefit of the patient having fewer relapses and hospitalization.
illness management skills
Illness management skills:

Illness Management Skills

  • Must know basics about the disease.
  • Must know principals of Schizophrenia treatment.
  • Can make decisions about their care once they are aware of the disease and treatment.
  • Taught how to distinguish warning signs of relapse.
integrated treatment for co occurring substance abuse
Integrated treatment for Co-occurring substance abuse.

Integrated treatment for Co-occurring substance abuse.

  • Depend more on the prescribeddrugs.
  • Most common occurring but not recognized. Do you mean drug abuse is the most commonly occurring symptom?
  • They produce a better outcome. Meaning correct use of prescribed meds produces the least relapses?
rehabilitation

Rehabilitation

Rehabilitation:

Rehabilitation for Patients can include:

  • Social and vocational training.
  • Programs including vocational counseling, job training, money management, counseling.
  • Assistance inusing public transport.
  • Practicing social and workplace communication skills.
family education

Family Education

Family education:
  • Patients with Schizophrenia usually get discharged into the care of their family.
  • Families must know the importance of the disease and know as much about the disease as possible.
  • Families should be taught know different kinds of treatment and coping strategies.
cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Cognitive behavioral therapy:

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Can:

  • Be more effective for patients where symptoms still persist even after medication.
  • Teaches how to test their reality.
  • Be more effective as they reduce severity of symptoms.
  • Decrease the risk of relapses.
self help groups

Self-Help Groups

Self- help groups:

These Groups:

  • Do not involve professional therapists.
  • Are a source of mutual support.
  • Include people that are aware others are facing same problems.
  • Generate social actions.
  • Do not draw public attention and does not let the public discriminate against them.
antipsychotic medication

Antipsychotic Medication

Antipsychotic medication:

Antipsychotic Medication:

  • Reduces the likelihood of relapses.
  • Normalizes chemical balances that cause Schizophrenia.
  • Two major types of antipsychotic medication:
    • Traditional medication
    • New Antipsychotic medications.
slide25

Traditional Medication

Traditional Medication May:

  • Effectively control hallucinations and delusions.
  • Control the confusion of Schizophrenia.
  • Treat positive symptoms of Schizophrenia.
new antipsychotic medication

New Antipsychotic Medication

New antipsychotic medication:

New Antipsychotic Medication May:

  • Treat a broader range of symptoms.
  • Treats both “positive” and “negative” symptoms.
slide27

Side Effects of Medication

Side effects for both types of medication may include any or all of the following:

  • MildEffects - dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, diarrhea drowsiness and dizziness.
  • Serious Effects - trouble with muscle control, frequent and unmanageable muscle spasm and cramps. Negative changes to Mental Health.
slide29

Nursing interventions for Schizophrenia by Dan

Nursing interventions for Schizophrenia include:

  • Assistance with Activities of daily living.
  • Provision of a safe physical environment.
  • Supervision.
  • This will often include restriction of drugs.
  • Medications.

Continued...

slide30

Nursing interventions for Schizophrenia by Dan

  • Psychotherapy.
    • This is used to help patients improve their relationships, integrate into society and help assist with Daily Living.
    • Psychotherapy is generally used after the acute phase has passed.
slide31

Psychotherapy

  • Definition of Psychotherapy
    • Psychotherapy: “The treatment of a behavior disorder, mental illness, or any other condition by psychological means. Psychotherapy may utilize insight, persuasion, suggestion, reassurance, and instruction so that patients may see themselves and their problems more realistically and have the desire to cope effectively with them.”

(http://www.medterms.com 2009 MedicineNet, Inc.}

slide32

Psychotherapy

An example of the use of psychotherapy on a schizophrenic patient would be:

  • Following medication therapy the patient remains withdrawn. The patient is screened for depression and found to be severely anxious.
  • A Psychiatric nurse would then be called to discuss their withdrawal and find & treat the symptoms.

…Continued

slide33

Psychotherapy

  • The psychiatric nurse discusses and teaches coping strategies.
  • Some options include:
    • Positive suggestion and social activities.
    • Group therapy can provide perspective.
    • Teaching Communication skills.
    • Emphasize the need for a healthy diet and personal hygiene.
references
References

References

  • 2004 by Donald J Franklin, PhD - http://www.psychologyinfo.com/Schizophrenia/cognitive.htm
  • Video courtesy of http://mindyourmind.ca & patient’s video.
  • Clipart is royalty-free and courtesy of various sources.
  • Mayo Clinic - http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/catatonic-schizophrenia/ds00863