Vad är ledarskap? • Leading the way by goingahead • Leadershipmay be considered as the process (act) of influencing the activities of an organized group in itseffortstowardgoal setting and goalachievement (Stogdill 1950) • Influence • Group • Goals
Ledarskap – management • Difference?
Traitsperspective • Until WW2 • Bodilyappearance, abilities and traits • You are born as a leader • Selecting the right ones
Behaviouralperspective • Until the 1960’s • You behave as a leader or not • You can be trainedinto the right behavious • Relationship and task orientation • Trade-off or maximisation?
Contingencytheory • Until the 1980’s • The situation determineswhatbehaviour that is appropriate or not • You are leader in some situations, not in others • Fiedler: Trade offrelationship-taskorientationdependent on situationalcontingencies
New leadershipapproaches • From the 80’s onwards • Leadership as ’management of meaning’: ’leadersengage in sensemaking on behalf of others and develop a social consensus around the resultingmeaning’ (Bryman, 1996) Leadership is realized in the process whereby one or more individuals succeeds in attempting to frame and define the reality of others. Indeed, leadership situations may be conceived as those in which there exists an obligation or a perceived right on the part of certain individuals to define the reality of others. (Smircich & Morgan, 1982) • Transformationalleadership, charismaticleadership, visionaryleadership • Studies of topexecutives
Transformationalleadership • Transactionalleadership • Transformationalleadership
Critique • Leadership is a subject that has long excited interest among people. The term connotes images of powerful, dynamic individuals who command victorious armies, direct corporate empires from atop gleaming skyscrapers, or shape the course of nations. The exploits of brave and clever leaders are the essence of many legends and myths. Much of our description of history is the story of military, political, religious, and social leaders who are credited or blamed for important historical events, even though we do not understand very well how the events were caused and how much influence the leader really had. (Yukl)
Critique • No clearsuccessrecipes in research • Focus on topexecutives • Ideals vs dailyreality • Context still not consideredenough • Underlyingassumptions • Individualism • Unitarycommand • Leadership is good • Toughmasculinity
Whatdo managers do? • Carlson (’50)/Mintzberg (’70)? • Neveralone • Manyshort tasks (8 min betweendisturbances) • Much talk, less analysis
Vad gör chefer? • Tengblad (2002) • 18 min betweendisturbances • Sensemaking in conversations with co-workers • Geographicalfragmentation (20% travel time) • Differencesindividual-collectiveorientation • Manymeetings with investors and analysts, less with customers and authorities • Information handling 50%, decisionmaking 7% • Mostlyengaged in finance and control matters
Professional organisations • Professional norms moreimportantthanwhat the boss says: • Facilitatingleadership • Non-disturbingleadership • Disturbingleadership • Leadership as service
Leaders as heroes? • ’ There are […] some business magazines so mesmerized with leadership that nothingelse matters. In fouryearsGestner has addedmorethan $40 billion to IBM’ssharevalue, this magazinewrote on April 14, 1997. Every penny of it! Nothing from the hundreds of thousands of other IBM employees. No role for the complexweb of skills and relationshipsthesepeople form. No contributions from luck. No help from growingeconomy. Just Gestner. (Mintzberg, 1999) • ‘Then consider this proposition: maybe really good management is boring. Maybe the press is the problem, alongside the so-called gurus, since they are the ones who personalize success and deify leaders (before they defile them). After all, corporations are large and complicated; it takes a lot of effort to find out what has really been going on. It is so much easier to assume that the great one did it all. Makes for better stories too.’ (Mintzberg, 1999)
Postheroic leadership Crevani et al. 2007 – International Journal of Leadership Studies
Discussion task for 4th May • Each group shall make shortsummaries of the literature and be prepared to present this summary in class (about 4 pages) • What are the 5 mainqualities a project manager needs to have? • What are the 5 maindifferencesbetweenbeing a project manager and an ”ordinarydepartmental manager” • Whatprojectleadership tasks could be performed by team membersinstead? Give 5 examples. • All summaries and answers/reflections to questionsshall be handed over to Johann in paper format at the beginning of the seminar. Use the standardised cover form!!!