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What is a Relative Clause ( RC )? A RC is a clause that describes a referent in the same sentence. ( eg.A person, a thing, an animal, a place, etc. ) Example. The house that my father bought is in La Molina Referent Relative Clause The RC is describing the referent THE HOUSE
Structure of a Relative Clause The house that my father bought is in La Molina. ø that my father bought Relative Pronoun Subject Verb Complement Predicate
Another example The responsibility of each shareholder is limited to the amount that they have contributed that they have contributed Relative Pronoun Subject Verb Comp.
Types of Relative Clause How does this sentence sound? That´s the girl. How about this sentence? That´s the girl that got 20 in the MTE. Which message is clearer? Why? Because the RC in the second sentence gives a clearer meaning to it.
This type of Relative Clause is called: Defining Relative Clause Because it DEFINES and CLARIFIES the referent Another example: I read the book! What book? I read the book that you suggested the other day.
Study these sentences: Philips invented the CD in 1983. Philips, which is a Dutch company, invented the CD in 1983. Relative Clause What is the function of the RC in the second sentence? It gives EXTRA information about the referent
This type of Relative Clause is called Non-defining Relative Clause Because it does not define the referent, it gives EXTRA or ADDITIONAL information about it. More examples: • Toledo,who is an economist, is the president of Peru. • Arequipa, which is in the south of Peru, is a pretty city.
Defining or non-defining? Tom Cruise, who is Nicole Kidman´s ex - husband, has not been Nominated for the Oscar. The USIL campus, which is not big enough already, is moving to a new location soon. I ate the ice – cream that was in the freezer. Women who work are happier than women who don´t work. Students who ask questions learn a lot. • Creativity, which may take many forms, is a quality all • human beings have.
Defining or non-defining? • Hunter College, which is located at 68th and Park,is • part ofthe City University of New York. • The Empire State Building, which used to be the tallest • buildingin the world, is still a popular tourist attraction • The child who threw your book away was only three years old. • New York is a place where people of many different • cultureslive and work together. • New York City, where millions of immigrants live, is • known as the Big Apple
Punctuation of Relative Clauses Defining Relative Clauses do not use extra punctuation: I ate the ice – cream that was in the freezer. Non – defining Relative Clauses usecommasto separate Them from the main sentence. • New York City, where millions of immigrants live, is known • as the Big Apple
Relative Pronouns For people use: THAT/ WHO in Defining clauses WHO in Non-defining clauses Women who/ that work are happier than women who/ that don´t work. Tom Cruise, who is Nicole Kidman´s ex - husband, has not Been nominated for the Oscar
Relative Pronouns For objects use: THAT/ WHICH in Defining clauses WHICH in Non-defining clauses I ate the ice – cream that/ which was in the freezer. • Hunter College, which is located at 68th and Park,is part of • the City University of New York.
Relative Pronouns For places use WHERE For possession use WHOSE For time use WHEN • New York City, where millions of immigrants live, is • Known as the Big Apple I don´t know the manager whose decision caused the problem. I met the day when we had our final exam last year.
Important 1 • The referent goes RIGHT BEFORE the clause. Students who ask questions learn a lot.
Important 2 The Relative Pronoun may be omitted when there is a subject in the clause ONLY in DEFINING clauses. The job that I applied for has already been taken. The job I applied for has already been taken
Important 3 The relative pronoun can not be omitted when it is also the subject of the clause Students who ask questions learn a lot PRONOUN = SUBJECT
Important 4 The relative pronoun can not be omitted in NON-DEFINING clauses. Woody Allen, who critics consider a great director, is from New York. Woody Allen, critics consider a great director, is from New York.