Chapter 2 Adolescence of Air Power
Objectives • List significant events in aviation occurring between 1904-1911 • Describe the development of new engines • Recall Louis Bleriot’s contributions • Discuss air power during WWI • Identify several WWI aces
Preview Questions • How was the Wright’s first flight received? • How did the government react to their airplane? • What are some important features an airplane back then should have?
US Developments • First flight went almost unnoticed • Only one article, misleading and poorly written • 1904-1905, Wrights perfected design by testing craft in pasture in OH • 1905, Wrights wrote letter to US government offering to build an aircraft of their specification • Little interest/response • War Department still embarrassed after Langley failures
Wrights go abroad for sales after 3 refusals from the US • President Teddy Roosevelt finally took interest • Directed Secretary of War to solicit bids • Aircraft had to do 7 things: • Carry pilot • Carry passenger • Fuel enough for 125 mile trip • 36 mph under perfect control • Takeoff and land in any likely warzone without damage • Able to be disassembled • Reassembled in 1 hour
Wrights got the US contract • Orville stayed to build US test plane • Wilbur went to France to demo plane to other governments and businesses • French paid Wrights $100,000 to form French aircraft building company • Orville & Army testing planes in VA • 12 very successful flights • 13th flight resulted in crash, Orville injured • Passenger, Lt. Selfridge killed, first to die in powered airplane
Glenn Curtiss • Built gasoline engines for motorcycles as a teenager • Brilliant engineer • 1907, became known as “worlds fastest man” by setting motorcycle speed record of 136mph • Curtiss engines were light and powerful • Balloon and dirigible manufacturers started buying his engines for their craft
Aviation soon became his passion • 1907, formed Aerial Experiment Assoc. with Alexander Graham Bell • Goal was to build/improve airplane design • Built first American aircraft to have ailerons • Built first seaplane • 1910, Wrights and Curtiss open separate flight schools
Other Notable Events • 1910: • Eugene Ely, first to land on Naval ship • Pres. Roosevelt, first pres. to fly • Wm. Randolph Hearst offers $50,000 to anyone who can fly across US in 30 days • Calbraith Perry Rodgers accepts challenge • Flies a Wright airplane • Sponsored by “Vin Fiz” soda • Flight took 49 days, 68 stops, 4,251 miles
1911, Harriet Quimby, first licensed female pilot • April 6, 1912, first woman to fly English Channel solo • Died in plane crash, June 1912
Discussion • Why was the government uninterested in airplanes? • Why did many of the airplanes built in the 1910s and 1920s look so much alike? • Who seems more influential the Wrights or Glenn Curtiss?
Exit Slip • 5 min • Index card • Name • Of all the “accomplish this aviation feat first and win a prize” promotions around back then, which would you chose to do? • Ex: Cross US, cross English Channel, Atlantic, Pacific, you can even make one up
Preview Questions • Who was the first to fly in Europe? • Hint: Frenchman famous for dirigibles • Who built the world’s first monoplane? • What are 2 good reasons to build multiengine airplanes? • What was the major difficulty when flying VTOL aircraft?
Progress in Europe • Robert Esnault-Pelterie • Frenchman • First to design/build glider with ailerons • Enclosed fuselage • Alberto Santos-Dumont • First to fly in Europe • October 23, 1906 • Paris
Aviation got a lot of positive press in Europe • Caused a lot of excitement • Louis Bleriot, 1907 flew first monoplane • 1909, first to fly across English Channel • Built 11 planes before perfected English Channel flight model, 50 crashes
Multiengine • 2 reasons to have more than one engine • Increase power • Improve reliability and safety • 1911, Short brothers granted patent for first multiengine airplane • First four engine airplane built by the great engineer and pilot, Igor Sikorsky • LeGrand, also had enclosed cockpit
Engine Improvements • Engines very heavy • Made of steel, iron or brass • Water cooled • 10 pounds per hp • Laurent and Gustav Seguin, 1907 • Developed air cooled engine • Cooling fins on cylinders • 3 pounds per hp
Vertical Flight • Rotary aircraft (rotating wings) • Early helicopters • Struggled with control once in flight
Commercial Flight • January 1, 1914 • First regularly scheduled airline service • St. Petersburg-Tampa Airboat Line • Pilot, Tony Janus • Plane, Twin Benoist XIV flying boat • Cost, $5 and took 20 minutes
War is Coming • By 1912, all major modern nations have military flying service • By name only in US • We had 1 plane, that was our “Air Force” • 1913, 19 planes and 29 pilots in US military • 1914, start of war • Germany 200 planes • Britain and France 450 planes
1917, Congress appropriates $64 million for aircraft • Boasted that we would “darken the skies over Europe with US aircraft” • Promised 263 squadrons with 22,625 aircraft by June 1918 • When the war ended in November 1918 only 45 squadrons in action, none flying US planes • Not a single American designed combat aircraft saw action
Discussion • In your opinion, who was more influential, Alberto Santos-Dumont, Louis Bleriot, or Igor Sikorsky? • Why? • Had anyone ever heard of the St Pete – Tampa Airboat Line?
Exit Slip • 5 min • Index card • Name • Why was the US Government so ill prepared for the start of WWI? • How did the US deliver on promises to assist Britain with air support? • 5 min • Discuss with neighbor
Preview Questions • What is the military role of the airplane? • The addition of what turned the airplane into an active attack weapon? • What is an “ace”? • Who were the “aces” of WWI?
World War I • Airplanes used for observation • No guns • Bombs eventually carried • In the lap of the pilot • By 1915, Germans bombing France and England with dirigibles and airplanes • 1917, twin-engine Gotha IV replaced dirigibles as German bombers
German air-raids on England caused the formation of the RAF or Royal Air Force
Fighter Development • Brought upon by increased bombing raids • Just gave pilot a gun • French pilot Roland Garros mounted automatic rifle on cowling to fire through prop. • Had to put steel plates on back of prop • Garros shot down and captured • Germans tasked Anthony Fokker with improving firing design
Fokker’s Design • Fokker incorporated an interrupting gear • The gun would only fire when the prop was out of the way • Reliability and safety • For a year the Germans were the only ones with this advantage, which gave them air superiority • 1916, allies captured German plane with interrupting gear and copied it
Fighters had to be light, fast and maneuverable • Some famous fighters developed during WWI: • Sopwith Camel and the SE-5A, British • Spad VII and Nieuport 28, French
Insignia • German • French • American • Britain
Fighter Aces • French coined term “ace” • Given to pilots who downed 5 enemy aircraft • French • British • Americans • Germans required 10 • “Ace of Aces” given to pilot with most kills from each nation
Ace of Aces • America, Eddie Rickenbacker • 26 kills • Britain, Edward Mannock • 73 kills • France, Rene Fonck • 75 kills • Germany, Baron Manfred von Richthofen • 80 kills • Red Baron
US in WWI • War began in 1914, US did not enter till 1917 • Many Americans did not wait • Joined French Foreign Legion as pilots • When war broke out 7 wealthy Americans in Paris joined French Air Corps • Called themselves the Lafayette Escadrille • By 1917, only one of the original seven was still alive • Escadrille incorporated into US Army Air Corps in Feb 1918
American Aviators • Raoul Lufberry • French born American citizen • 17 kills • Jumped out of airplane on fire and died • Eddie Rickenbacker • Former racecar driver • Named Commander of 94th Squadron after 4 kills • Gave pilots parachutes • 26 kills in 5 months
Billy Mitchell • Youngest student at George Washington Univ. • 2nd Lt. at 18 • 1st Lt. by 19 • 1903, youngest Capt. In Army at 23 • Became pilot at 36, old for industry • Advocated separate “Air Force” branch of military • Chief of Air Service, under Amy command • Thought of planes as the future of offensive combat
Discussion • Why were German “ace” criteria more restrictive than everyone else? • What invention allowed Germany to have air superiority for over a year? • Who was aviations biggest up and coming advocate?
Videos • Glenn Curtiss • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=33rS9Vf_5DQ • Alberto Santos-Dumont • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ro5wkljLn7k • Louis Bleriot • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JLUG_ZR9a0U • Igor Sikorsky • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7YHlBq3pW7I
Quiz • Who was the “fastest man on earth” for setting a motorcycle speed record? • Who built the “Vin Fiz” airplane? • Who was the 1st woman to fly the English Channel solo? • Who flew the first airplane in Europe? • Who built the 1st 4-engine airplane? • What was the airplanes 1st role in warfare? • How many “kills” must a German pilot have to receive the “ace” status? • Who invented the interrupter gear? • Who was America’s “ace of aces”? • Who was Germany’s “ace of aces”?