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RENAISSANCE. OUTSIDE ITALY. SOURCE: A HISTORY OF THE MODERN WORLD – PALMER, COLTON, KRAMER. RELIGIOUS SCHOLARSHIP & SCIENCE. CHRISTIAN HUMANISM OF THE NORTH => BLEND OF OLD AND NEW LOTS OF NEW UNIVERSITIES ESTABLISHED. PAGAN HUMANISM OF ITALY NO NEW UNIVERSITIES IN 15TH C. GERMANY.

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renaissance

RENAISSANCE

OUTSIDE ITALY

SOURCE: A HISTORY OF THE MODERN WORLD – PALMER, COLTON, KRAMER

religious scholarship science
RELIGIOUS SCHOLARSHIP & SCIENCE

CHRISTIAN HUMANISM OF THE NORTH => BLEND OF OLD AND NEW

LOTS OF NEW UNIVERSITIES ESTABLISHED

  • PAGAN HUMANISM OF ITALY
  • NO NEW UNIVERSITIES IN 15TH C
germany
GERMANY
  • MAIN CENTRE OF EUROPEAN LIFE
  • POLITICALLY DIVIDED
  • ECONOMICALLY PROSPEROUS
  • INVENTIONS, PAINTING, SIENCE...
legend of faust
LEGEND OF FAUST
  • DRAMATISED BY MARLOWE IN 1593
  • AND GOETHE IN GERMAN POETRY IN 1808

LEARNED GERMAN WHO SELLS HIS SOUL TO THE DEVIL IN RETRUN FOR KNOWLEDGE AND POWER

What does the story of Dr Faust want to tell us?

mysticism
MYSTICISM

MYSTICISM = THE INDIVIDUAL SOUL CAN COMMUNE DIRECTLY WITH GOD

MYSTIC DOES NOT NEED REASON,WORDS OR SACRAMENTS

SOUGHT A DEEPER RELIGION IN WHICH THE CHURCH A A SOCIAL INSTITUTION HAD NO PLACE

lay religion
LAY RELIGION

CONSISTS OF ALL MEMBERS WHO ARE NOT A PART OF THE CLERGY, FOR EXAMPLE A NUN OR BROTHER

  • GERARD GROOTE FOUNDED RELIGIOUS SISTERHOOD IN THE NETHERLANDS
  • SISTERS AND BROTHERS OF THE COMMON LIFE:
  • RELIEVING THE POOR
  • TEACHING
erasmus of rotterdam
ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM

1466 – 1536

MOST IMPORTANT NORTHERN HUMANIST

RIDICULED MEDIEVAL THOUGHT

STUDIED CLASSICAL WRITERS

URGED PEOPLE TO READ NEW TESTAMENT TO IMPROVE THEIR WAY OF LIFE

ATTACKED ABUSES IN THE CHURCH

new monarchies
NEW MONARCHIES
  • MIDDLE 15TH C:
  • CENTRAL GOVERNMENT HAD BECOME WEAK DUE TO WARS, FEUDAL REBELLION, BANDITRY
  • EMERGENCE OF NEW MONARCHS WHO TRIED TO IMPOSE CIVIL PEACE => GUARANTEE OF LAW AND ORDER
    • ALLY WITH THE MIDDLE CLASS (TIRED OF WARS)
    • DEVELOP AN ARMY OF FOOT SOLDIERS (MERCENARIES)
    • BREAK DOWN ATTACHMENT TO FEUDAL, COMMON LAW (REPLACING IT WITH ROMAN LAW)
england
ENGLAND

TUDORS (1485 – 1603)

HENRY VII GAINED THE THRONE BY FORCE (WAR OF THE ROSES)

FORBADE THE NOBILITY TO HAVE PRIVATE ARMY

ESTABLISHED NEW COURT TO PERSECUTE NOBLES

france
FRANCE

LOUIX XI VALOIS (1461 – 1483)

BUILD UP ROYAL ARMY

ENLARGED HIS POWERS OVER THE CLERGY

GAINED MUCH GREATER POWER THAN ENGLISH TUDORS => TO TAX WITHOUT CONSENT

spain
SPAIN
  • TWO KINGDOMS WITH NO COMMON POLITICAL, JUDICIAL OR ADMINISTRATIVE INSITUTIONS:
  • ARAGON (BALEARIC ISLAND, SARDINA, SICILY, SOUTH ITALIAN KINDOM OF NAPLES)
  • CASTILE (NEWLY DISCOVERED AMERICAS)
  • JOINED BY MARRIAGE OF FERDINAND OF ARAGON AND ISABELLA OF CASTILE IN 1469
spain1
SPAIN

JEWS AND MUSLIMS EXPELLED

SPANISH LIFE BECAME A CRUSADE AGAINST UNBELIEF AND HERESY

  • AFTER CONQUEST OF GRANADA (1492) RELIGIOUS CONFORMITY BECOMES BASIS OF NATIONHOOD => SPANISH INQUISITION
the holy roman empire habsburg supremacy
THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE & HABSBURG SUPREMACY

HRE CONSISTED OUT OF:

PRINCELY STATES (HEREDITARY AND DYNASTIC)

ECCLESIASTICAL STATES (CHURCH CITY-STATES, UNDER BISHOPS OR ABBOTS)

FIFTY IMPERIAL FREE STATES (DOMINATED COMMERCIAL AND FINACIAL LIFE)

house of habsburg
HOUSE OF HABSBURG

1452: ARCHDUKE OF AUSTRIA, A HABSBURG, BECOMES HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR

BY MARRIAGE THE HABSBURGERS ACCUMULATED AN IMMENSE EMPIRE

europe on the verge of universal monarchy
EUROPE ON THE VERGE OF UNIVERSAL MONARCHY?
  • DID NOT HAPPEN DUE TO:
  • DECLINE OF THE CHRUCH
  • RISE OF HUMANISM
  • RISE OF NEW MONARCHS
  • RESISTANCE OF FEUDAL LORDS TO NEW MONARCHS
  • DIVISION OF GERMANY
  • SPREAD OF RELIGION OUTSIDE THE OFFICIAL CLERGY
  • ZEAL OF SPAIN
  • POWER OF CHARLES V
  • FEARS FELT IN THE REST OF EUROPE TO BE ABSORBED BY THE HRE