Liquids solids and intermolecular forces
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Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces. Chapter 11. Gecko’s Hairy Feet. Nanostructures on the soles of gecko feet. Thanks to about one billion hierarchically organized nanohairs, the gecko can go for a walk on walls and ceilings, unlike people.

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Gecko s hairy feet l.jpg
Gecko’s Hairy Feet

  • Nanostructures on the soles of gecko feet. Thanks to about one billion hierarchically organized nanohairs, the gecko can go for a walk on walls and ceilings, unlike people.

  • Image: Max Planck Institute for Metals Research


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Polar Molecules

  • Dipole - A molecule such as HF which has a positive and a negative end. This dipolar character is often represented by an arrow pointing towards the negative charge.

  • Dipole moments – the measure of the net molecular polarity

    • Measure of separation of charge

      • Measured in units of Debyes (D) = Qr (charge x separation)


Polar bonds non polar molecules l.jpg
Polar bondsNon-polar molecules


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Forces holding one molecule to another in a substance.

van der Waals forces

Dispersion forces

London Forces

Polar-polar interactions

Hydrogen bonding

Intermolecular Forces


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London forces

Induced dipole – induced dipole

or

Nonpolar - Nonpolar interactions


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Polarizability

  • The ease with which a molecule/atoms electron cloud can be distorted, thereby inducing a dipole moment.

  • Increasing the number of electrons increases the polarizability of an atom or molecule.



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Dipole – Dipole forces

or

Polar - Polar interactions


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Hydrogen Bonds

  • A special type of polar interaction between a hydrogen atom bonded to an electronegative element and another electronegative element.


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Solubility

Like dissolves Like


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Solubility

  • Polar solvents dissolve polar molecules

  • Nonpolar solvents dissolve nonpolar molecules

  • Molecules with polar and nonpolar ends are frequently soluble in both polar and nonpolar solvents.

  • Polar solvents are good for solubilizing salts.



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Viscosity

  • Resistance to flow

  • If a liquid has strong intermolecular interactions then particles will not flow past each other easily and viscosity will be high.


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Surface Tension

  • tendency to minimize surface area



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  • Water (red) has stronger adhesive forces.

  • Mercury has stronger cohesive forces.


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Capillary Action

  • The ability of a liquid to flow against gravity up a narrow tube.

Attraction of water to glass walls draws water up tubes


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Vaporization

Some Molecules in an open beaker have enough kinetic energy to vaporize from the surface of the liquid.


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Vapor Pressure

The pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its liquid phase.


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A liquid boils when thermal energy is high enough to cause molecules in the interior of the liquid to become gaseous, forming bubbles that rise to the surface.


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or molecules in the interior of the liquid to become gaseous, forming bubbles that rise to the surface.


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Clausius Clapeyron Equation molecules in the interior of the liquid to become gaseous, forming bubbles that rise to the surface.

or


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Dry ice sublimes at –78 molecules in the interior of the liquid to become gaseous, forming bubbles that rise to the surface.oC and has a Hsub of 25.2 kJ/mol. Calculate the vapor pressure of CO2 at –100oC.


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Liquid and solid water orderly array


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Carbon allotropes orderly array


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Phase Diagrams orderly array

  • Graphically show conditions under which all phases are stable.


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Phase diagram for CO orderly array2


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Triple point orderly array

  • A three-way intersection representing the unique temp, pressure where all three phases exist simultaneously.


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Critical point orderly array

  • The temperature (critical temperature) where a gas cannot be liquefied no matter what the pressure.

    • Notice that the triple point for carbon dioxide is at 5.11 atm pressure. The liquid form doesn’t ever exist below this pressure and this is the reason that dry ice never melts but always sublimes.


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Supercritical fluid orderly array

  • Neither a liquid nor a gas. The liquid and gas forms become indistinguishable at this point.

  • http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/supercritical/scintro.html


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Phase diagram for H orderly array2O


Water l.jpg
Water orderly array

  • colorless, odorless, tasteless, liquid at ordinary temperatures

  • only inorganic compound occurring naturally as a liquid

  • composes 65% of mass of living organisms

  • excellent solvent for many things

  • abnormally high boiling and melting point

  • ice is less dense than water (it floats)


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Water purification orderly array

  • Hard water -- Contains Ca+2, Mg+2, Fe+3 and other minerals.

  • Soft water -- Doesn’t contain Ca+2, Mg+2, Fe+3 ions.

  • Softened water -- metal cations in hard water are replaced by Na+.

  • Deionized water -- cations are replaced by H+ and anions are replaced by OH-


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