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Integrated Pest Management: Keeping the “I” in IPM J. P. Cuda, Ph.D. Entomology & Nematology Department Gainesville, FL 32611-0620.

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Integrated Pest Management: Keeping the “I” in IPM J. P. Cuda, Ph.D.Entomology & Nematology DepartmentGainesville, FL 32611-0620

Instructor:Dr. Jim Cuda, Asst. Professor phone (352-392-1901 ext 126)email ( (Research 65%) Biological Control of Invasive Weeds (Extension 30%) Biocontrol of Insect Pests & Weeds

  • Distribute Surveys
  • Background for New IPM Initiative
  • Principles and Practices of IPM
  • MG Pest Management Practices
  • IFAS Accountability Survey

Why Are We Here ?

  • Homeowner reliance on pesticides is high and unsustainable
    • $$, Safety Issues, CWA, FQPA
    • Sarasota Co.- 26,000 lbs of pesticides collected in 1996 Amnesty Program
  • Federal mandate for viable pesticide alternatives
    • EPA prohibition of diazinon & dursban
  • Willingness of home gardeners to experiment

What is IPM ?

  • Applied pest control that combines and integrates biological and chemical control(Stern et al. 1959)
  • Manipulation of natural processes to increase their effectiveness; use pesticides only when natural processes fail to control pests

(National academy of Sciences, 1996)


Goal of IPM ?

  • Avoid or prevent pest damage with minimum adverse effects on human health, non-target organisms and the environment
  • Emphasis on and integration of “sustainable” IPM tactics
    • Prevention, biological, cultural, mechanical controls, and reduced risk pesticides

Current Situation

  • Limited adoption of basic IPM principles :
    • Manipulate natural processes to increase effectiveness
    • Emphasis on ecologically- based tools instead of pesticides
    • Integration of compatible tactics

Problem Identification

  • Increase funding for interdisciplinary research and extension programs(IPM-SR, SARE grant programs)
  • Need for trained IPM practitioners

(UF DPM program)

  • Improve public education about IPM and its benefits

What is Immediate Solution?

  • Establishment of IFAS Office of IPM and Advisory Committee
    • Dr. Norman C. Leppla, Coordinator
  • Identify IPM and biocontrol (BC) expertise in IFAS, DACS, and USDA
  • Inventory IPM successes in Florida
  • Increase visibility and delivery of IPM concepts and practices in county extension programs
Delivery of IPM Information and Technology Emphasizing Biological Control J. P. Cuda and N. C. LepplaEntomology & Nematology Dept.
  • Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
    • Biologically-based pest control system
    • Combinations of control tactics to conserve natural enemies
  • Biological Control, Biocontrol (BC)
    • Suppression of harmful organisms with natural enemies
    • Foundation of IPM programs
  • Develop State Major Program in IPM emphasizing BC
  • Establish a Design Team to assist in planning, implementing and evaluating SMP activities
rationale for new smp in ipm
Rationale for New SMP in IPM
  • County priorities
  • Florida FIRST imperatives
  • “Illusion of IPM” (Ehler & Bottrell 2000)
county priorities 1999
County Priorities (1999)
  • Increased demand for training and educational materials in IPM / BC
  • Priority program areas:
    • Agriculture, Horticulture, Natural Resources
florida first imperatives
Florida FIRST Imperatives
  • Water Quality & Management
  • Pest Protection
  • Food Technologies
  • Produce Society-Ready Graduates
illusion of ipm
“Illusion of IPM”
  • Limited implementation of “true” IPM
    • National commitment (1993) – 75% by year 2000
    • Currently < 8% of U.S. crop acreage
  • Reliance on pesticides
  • Minimal integration of compatible tactics
summit 2000
Summit 2000
  • Gainesville, 16 August
  • UF (state / county faculty) & USDA
      • Agronomy, Entomology, Horticulture, Nematology, Natural Resources, Plant Pathology
      • Commitments from FAMU, FLDEP and FLWMDs
  • Design Team Leaders selected
      • Norm Leppla, Jim Cuda and Gary Brinen
  • Tentative Title for New SMP
    • “Delivery of IPM and Biological Control Information and Technology”
  • LIST- SERV and website developed
  • Grant proposal submitted to SARE
    • Funding to support graduate student and distance education fees
mission statement
Mission Statement
  • Provide leadership in developing educational materials and in-service training programs to support implementation of IPM emphasizing BC at local level
design team functions
Design Team Functions
  • Build effective network of county, state and federal faculty committed to IPM emphasizing BC
  • Assist cooperating counties in identifying and developing demonstration projects
design team functions cont d
Design Team Functions (cont’d)
  • Facilitate acquisition and dissemination of information via IPM / BC web site
  • Develop / coordinate in-service training and distance education programs on the proper use of natural controls
design team functions cont d1
Design Team Functions (cont’d)
  • Increase public awareness of BC and IPM by facilitating the documentation of IPM successes in appropriate media outlets
achievable goals
Achievable Goals
  • New partnerships
  • Extension Delivery System
  • Accountability
new partnerships
New Partnerships
  • Establish new IPM / BC partnerships
    • Coordinate efforts of BC scientists and county faculty
    • Link with private industry to develop practical BC agents and pesticide compatibility data
extension delivery system
Extension Delivery System
  • Develop Florida IPM / BC website
    • Compartmentalized areas :
      • Teaching, Homeowners, Commercial, Issues
      • Commodities: Citrus, Ornamentals, Natural Areas, Turf, Vegetables, and Structural
    • Links to EDIS, DDIS, FAWN
extension delivery system cont d
Extension Delivery System(cont’d)
  • Increase training and implementation of IPM / BC at local level
    • New BC Facilities in Ft. Pierce and Davie
    • Training centers for BC agent biology, rearing and implementation
    • Establish & maintain demonstration projects
    • Develop & disseminate training materials
  • Evaluation of SMP success:
    • Short term-
      • Informal / formal assessments
      • Monitor pesticide reduction at high use demonstration sites
accountability cont d
Accountability (cont’d)
  • Evaluation of SMP success (cont’d):
    • Long term-
      • Incorporate IPM options into PM guides
      • Increase $$ for IPM research & education
      • Link IFAS, IPM program with Florida FIRST
      • Advance IPM and BC in Florida
      • General acceptance of IPM / BC

Principles of IPM

  • Avoid or prevent pest damage with minimum adverse effects on human health, the environment, and non-targets
  • Integrate most effective, compatible, and sustainable pest management tactics
  • Begin with “Prevention” & “Biocontrols” and extend to “Chemical” & “Physical”controls in ways that minimize environmental risks (Leppla 2001)

Components of IPM

  • Scouting
    • Process of finding suspected pest and identifying it
      • Use diagnostic labs &/or local resources (DDIS) to distinguish pests from beneficials
      • Maintaining records of pest occurrence
  • Establishing thresholds for plant damage
    • Determining if pest population is high enough to justify managing it
  • Using multiple tactics to manage pests
    • Prevention, biological, autocidal, cultural, chemical, and physical
    • Timing pest control measures to coincide with most susceptible developmental stage
















Relative Degree of Sustainability



Economic Injury Level (EIL)

  • Pest population exceeds some threshold beyond which it interferes with plant health, appearance or profits

Aesthetic Threshold (AT)

  • Point at which thought or sight of pest population is nearing maximum human tolerance level

Why Use Thresholds?

  • Using thresholds can maintain or improve plant quality while reducing the amount and frequency of conventional pesticides

IPM Checklist (√)


  • Select healthy plants suited to habitat

- Right plant, right place, right time

  • Inspect &/or quarantine nursery stock

Biological control= Natural enemies

  • Predator- consumes more than one prey item during its development (e.g.,Lady beetle)
  • Parasitoid- lives in / on body of one host eventually killing it (e.g., Parasitic fly or wasp)
  • Entomopathogen- disease causing organism

(e.g., Nematode, bacterium, fungus, protozoan, virus)


IPM Checklist (√)

Biological Control for Homeowners

  • Conservation- Maintain and enhance existing beneficial organisms
    • Alter control practices (e.g., timing of pesticides)
    • Provide nectar sources, additional hosts
    • Provide companion plants to attract and maintain beneficial organisms
  • Augmentation- Increasing numbers & kinds of beneficials
    • Inoculative-Acquire and release small numbers early in pest cycle
    • Inundative- Acquire and release large numbers to overwhelm pest

IPM Checklist (√)

Cultural Control

  • Eliminate plant species that attract pests
  • Use pest resistant varieties
  • Remove and destroy heavily infested plants

Physical Control

  • Using yellow sticky cards to monitor and/or trap insects
  • Use of screens, covers, barriers, and handpicking some insects

IPM Checklist (√)

Chemical Control

  • Use selective (reduced risk) pesticides to preserve beneficials
  • Use microbial insecticides, e.g., Bts
  • Adjust application rates to protect beneficials
  • Spot treat areas when pests reach treatment threshold
  • Alternate pesticides to reduce resistance

Benefits of IPM

  • Reduced amount of pesticides needed to achieve control
    • Reduced environmental contamination from pesticides
    • Reduced risks of exposure to people, pets, and natural enemies
  • More economical
  • More effective long-term pest control
  • IFAS is putting FLORIDA FIRST in IPM of plant pests and weeds
  • http: //