Lower Appendicular Skeleton - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Lower Appendicular Skeleton

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  1. Lower Appendicular Skeleton

  2. Pelvic Girdle • Composed of sacrum, coccyx, and 2 coxae (hipbones) • Coxae have 3 distinct parts: • Ilium • Ischium • Pubis

  3. Coxae parts fuse together in the acetabulum(acetabul-), a cup-shaped area on the lateral surface of the hip that receives the head of the femur.

  4. Ilium • Largest and uppermost portion of the coxa • The upper edge is called the iliac crest • Joins the sacrum at the sacroiliac joint • Anterior superior iliac spine- the bony prominence you feel as your “hipbone”


  5. Ischium • Forms the lowest portion of the coxa • Ischialtuberosity • Points posteriorly AND downward • Supports the weight of the body when sitting • Ischial spine – a sharp projection above the ischialtuberosity, near the junction of the ischium and ilium

  6. Pubis • Anterior portion of the coxa • Two pubic bones join midline at the symphysis pubis joint • Pubic arch • Angle formed by pubic bones below the symphysis pubis • Arch is wider in females

  7. Male vs. female

  8. Lower Limb • Femur • Tibia • Fibula • Tarsals • Metatarsals • Phalanges

  9. Femur • Longest and strongest bone in the body • Head at top fits into __________of coxa • Greater trochanter – superior, lateral process • Lesser trochanter – inferior, medial process • Distal end: • Two rounded processes posteriorly: lateral condyleand medial condyle • Patella articulates anteriorly

  10. Tibia • aka, “shin bone” • Proximal end: • Medial and lateral condyles are concave and articulate with condyles of the femur • Tibialtuberosity just below the condyles; attachment point for patellar ligament • Distal end: medial malleolusforms prominent bony point of inner ankle

  11. Fibula • Proximal: head • Articulates with tibia just below the lateral condyle • DOES NOT enter into knee joint or bear any weight • Distal: lateral malleolus forms outer prominent bony part of ankle

  12. Ankle “Tarsals” • “Tiger Cubs Need MILC” • Talus Calcaneus (“heel bone”) Navicular Medial cuneiform Intermediate cuneiform Lateral cuneiform Cuboid

  13. “MILC: Need The Calcium” • 1=Medical Cuneiform • 2=Intermediate cuneiform • 3=Lateral cuneiform • 4= Cuboid • 5= Navicular • 6= Talus • 7= calcaneus

  14. Foot • 5 metatarsals • numbered 1-5 starting medially • Heads at distal ends form the ball of the foot • Phalanges • Toes • Each toe has 3 phalanges, except the big toe • What are the phalanges of each toe called? (HINT: Just like the fingers) • Which phalanx is the big toe missing?

  15. https://resources.oncourse.iu.edu/access/content/group/FA09-KO-OTHR-PRAC-18273/Helpful%20Websites/Nicole_s%20Website%20Pages/Bones/Foot-tarsals.JPGhttps://resources.oncourse.iu.edu/access/content/group/FA09-KO-OTHR-PRAC-18273/Helpful%20Websites/Nicole_s%20Website%20Pages/Bones/Foot-tarsals.JPG