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APPENDICULAR SKELETON. CHAPTER 8 (9/30/08). THE PECTORAL GIRDLE. Pectoral or Shoulder Girdle. Consists of two bones, the anteriorly positioned clavicle and the posteriorly positioned scapula

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appendicular skeleton




pectoral or shoulder girdle
Pectoral or Shoulder Girdle
  • Consists of two bones, the anteriorly positioned clavicle and the posteriorly positioned scapula
  • Pectoral girdle is a loosely attached, held in place largely by musculature attached to the thorax and the vertebral column
  • Only direct ligament attachment exists at the sternoclavicular joint
  • Frees girdle to move over the thorax as the need arises
flexible and mobile
Flexible and Mobile
  • Pectoral girdle is very light to allow the upper limb flexibility and mobility not allowed anywhere else in body
  • This is possible because only the sternal end of clavicle is attached to axial skeleton thus allowing the scapula to move across thorax and the arm with it
  • The socket of the shoulder joint is shallow and poorly reinforced
  • Although this arrangement does not restrict movement it is less stable
  • Clavicles are double curved bones extending along the superior thorax
  • Attached on the sternal end to sternum and the acromial to the scapula
  • Attachment site or muscles of the thorax and shoulder
  • Position scapula away from thorax
right scapula anterior aspect
Right ScapulaAnterior Aspect
  • Bone markings are related to
    • Joint structures
    • Muscle attachments
    • Nerve and blood vessels
right scapula posterior aspect
Right ScapulaPosterior Aspect
  • Bone markings are related to
    • Joint structures
    • Muscle attachments
    • Nerve and blood vessels
right scapula lateral aspect
Right ScapulaLateral Aspect
  • Schematic representation of its orientation
the upper limb11
The Upper Limb
  • Arm
    • Humerus
  • Forearm
    • Ulna
    • Radius
  • Hand
  • Wrist (8 carpal bones)
  • Palm (5 metacarpal bones)
  • Fingers (14 phalanges)
radius and ulna
Radius and Ulna
  • Ulna is involved in elbow flexion
  • Radius is involved with supination and pronation
elbow joint
Elbow Joint
  • Olecranon process pivots around the Trochlea to allow for elbow flexion and extension
elbow joint16
Elbow Joint
  • Olecranon process and coronoid process grips the trochlea of the humerus
elbow joint17
Elbow Joint
  • Olecranon process of ulna fits into the olecranon fossa of humerus to limit extension
wrist joint
Wrist Joint
  • Scaphoid and lunate bones articulate with the radius
wrist joint19
Wrist Joint
  • Palpation to locate the distal styloid processes of the radius and ulna
colles fracture
Colles’ Fracture
  • An impact fracture caused by falling on an outstretched hand
  • Note characteristic bending of tissue
carpal bones
Carpal Bones
  • The carpal bones appear in two irregular rows (proximal arch and distal row)
  • Mnemonic; proximal row - lateral to medial
  • Sally Left The Party To Take Carmen Home
  • Scaphoid is the most frequently fractured carpal bone often resulting from falling on an outstretched hand
the pelvic hip girdle
The Pelvic (Hip) Girdle
  • Attaches the lower limbs to axial skeleton
  • Transfers the weight of the torso, head, and upper extremities to lower limbs
  • Supports the visceral organs of the pelvis
  • Secured by strong ligaments and deep sockets the joint is reinforced for stability
  • Less range of motion in all planes of movement
  • Female pelvic structure to facilitate childbearing
Pelvic girdle is formed by a pair of coxal bones, each called an os coxae

Each os coxae unites anteriorly at the pubic symphysis and with the sacrum posteriorly

Each coxa is formed by the ilium, ischium and pubic which were separate during childhood but fused in adulthood

Collectively the os coxae, sacrum and coccyx is called the pelvis

os coxa
Os Coxa
  • Ilium
    • Superior
  • Ishium
    • Posterior
  • Pubis
    • Anterior
os coxa30
Os Coxa
  • Ilium
    • Superior
  • Ishium
    • Posterior
  • Pubis
    • Anterior
  • Sacrospinous ligament anchors the coccyx to the sacrum
  • Sacro-tuberous ligament runs from sacrum to each ishial tuberosity
false pelvis
False Pelvis
  • The false pelvis lies superior to the pelvic brim
  • The area is bounded by the alae of the iliac bones
  • Actually part of the abdomen and contains abdominal organs
true pelvis
True Pelvis
  • The true pelvis lies inferior to the pelvic brim
  • It forms a deep bowl that contains the pelvic organs
pelvic structure and childbearing
Pelvic Structure and Childbearing
  • The female pelvis reflects modifications for child bearing
  • It tends to be wider, shallower, lighter, and rounder than the male
  • Pelvic modifications accommodate the growing fetus as well as providing a birth canal wide enough to allow the infants head to exit at birth
  • Pelvic inlet and outlet are critical to delivery
the lower limb



the lower limb39
The Lower Limb
  • Thigh
    • Femur
  • Leg
    • Tibia
    • Fibula
  • Foot (7 Tarsal bones)
  • Instep (5 Metatarsal bones)
  • Toes (14 Phalanges)

Bones of

Right Foot