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O T T F F S S E __

O T T F F S S E __. What comes next?. 9. I V E. I X. EVEN. IGHT. NINE. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. O T T F F S S E __. N E. W O. H R E E. O U R. It’s EASY if you know the PATTERN! (Just like Punnett Squares). PROBABILITY &amp; PUNNETT SQUARES 11-2.

O T T F F S S E __

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1. O T T F F S S E __ What comes next?

2. 9 I V E I X EVEN IGHT NINE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 O T T F F S S E __ N E W O H R E E O U R It’s EASY if you know the PATTERN! (Just like Punnett Squares)

3. PROBABILITY & PUNNETT SQUARES11-2

4. Interest Grabber Section 11-2 Tossing Coins • If you toss a coin, what is the probability of getting heads? Tails? If you toss a coin 10 times, how many heads and how many tails would you expect to get? Working with a partner, have one person toss a coin • ten times while the other person tallies the results on a sheet of paper. Then, switch tasks to produce a separate tally of the second set of 10 tosses.

6. PROBABILITY ____________________is the __________ that a particular _________________ likelihood event will occur It can be written as a: Fraction ____ Percent ____ Ratio ____ 1/4 25% 1:3

7. http://www.arborsci.com/CoolStuff/CoinFlip.jpg COIN FLIP There are 2 possible outcomes: HEADS TAILS The chance the coin will land on either one is: ____ ____ ____ Alleles segregate randomly just like a coin flip. . . So can use probability to predict outcomes of genetic crosses. 1/2 50% 1:1

8. PROBABILITIES PAST DON’T FUTURE If last coin flip was heads… there is still a 50/50 chance the next flip will be heads too. _____ outcomes ______ affect _________ones _____________works ______ in ___________ a ________ number of events. Probability predicting best large The more flips. . . The closer results will be to the expected 50:50 average.

9. DOMINANT/RECESSIVE Dominant capital _____________ allele is represented by a ____________ letter.(usually the first letter of the trait) ____________ allele is represented by the SAME _________________ letter. EX: Tall = ______ Short =______ Recessive lower-case T t NOT S for short

10. HOMOZYGOUSHETEROZYGOUS When both alleles in the pair are the _______, the organism is _______________ or __________ EX: ____ or ___ When both alleles in the pair are _____________, the organism is _________________ or _____________ Ex: ____ SAME HOMOZYGOUS PURE TT tt DIFFERENT HETEROZYGOUS HYBRID Tt

11. PHENOTYPE/GENOTYPE genetic makeup The ________________ of an organism is its _____________ The ____________of an organism is its _____________ GENOTYPE appearance PHENOTYPE

12. MAKING A CROSS for only a __________ trait =____________________ ONE GENE A Punnett square for a MONOHYBRID CROSS looks like this: MONOHYBRID CROSS

13. PUNNETT SQUARES are used to show possible offspring from a cross between 2 parents _______________ go at top and on left side Boxes show _______________________________ Parent alleles T T T t possible offspring combinations

14. STEPS FOR MAKING CROSSES Figure out parent alleles Choose Punnett size Put in parent gametes Fill in offspring combinations probabilities phenotypes genotypes 1. ___________ what _________________ are 2. ________correct__________ square __________ 3. ______ possible_______________________ 4. ______ boxes with _____________________ 5. Determine ____________of_____________& ____________

15. IN PEA PLANTS T Tall is dominant over short TALL = ____ SHORT = ____ t LET’S MAKE A CROSS! PURE TALL PURE SHORT X

16. PURE TALL parentWhat are the parent alleles? TT _________ HOMOZYGOUS   What gametes can it make? T T

17. PURE SHORT parent What are the parent alleles? HOMOZYGOUS tt _________   What gametes can it make? t t

18. T T t t ALL _____ of the offspring ____ % ___/4 will be Tt T t 100 4 Tt Tt Tt TALL GENOTYPE _____ PHENOTYPE _______

19. HYBRID TALL parent What are the parent alleles? Tt _________ HETEROZYGOUS   What gametes can it make? T t

20. T t TT T T t TT GENOTYPES ¼ = _____ ½ = _____ ¼ = _____ Tt tt Tt tt t 3/4 75 TALL PHENOTYPES ____ or ____% _________ ____ or ____% _________ 1/4 25 SHORT

21. PRACTICE MAKING GAMETES for a MONOHYBRID CROSS R Tall = ____ Round seeds = ___ Short = ____ Wrinkled seeds = ___ T t r

22. What are the possible gametes? Homozygous Tall parent = What gametes can it produce? T T   T T

23. What are the possible gametes? PURE wrinkled parent = What gametes can it produce? rr   r r

24. What are the possible gametes? Heterozygous Round parent = What gametes can it produce? R r   R r

25. What are the possible gametes? Hybrid Tall parent = What gametes can it produce? Tt   T t

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