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O T T F F S S E __ PowerPoint Presentation
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O T T F F S S E __

O T T F F S S E __

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O T T F F S S E __

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  1. O T T F F S S E __ What comes next?

  2. 9 I V E I X EVEN IGHT NINE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 O T T F F S S E __ N E W O H R E E O U R It’s EASY if you know the PATTERN! (Just like Punnett Squares)

  3. The Work of Gregor Mendel11-1 http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/genetics%20tutorial.htm http://www.jic.bbsrc.ac.uk/germplas/pisum/zgs4f.htm

  4. heredity VOCABTransmission of characteristics from parents to offspring = ____________ The science that studies heredity =_____________ genetics

  5. Gregor Mendel The “father of genetics” is __________________, a monk whose study of genetic traits was the beginning of our understanding of how genes are passed on http://www.jic.bbsrc.ac.uk/germplas/pisum/zgs4f.htm

  6. http://hus.yksd.com/distanceedcourses/YKSDbiology/lessons/FourthQuarter/Chapter11/11-1/images/MendelExperiment.gifhttp://hus.yksd.com/distanceedcourses/YKSDbiology/lessons/FourthQuarter/Chapter11/11-1/images/MendelExperiment.gif Pea plants Mendel designed experiments using __________in the monastery garden

  7. trait A specific characteristic is called a _________ Mendel studied _________ in peas. 7 traits Pearson Education Inc,; Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall

  8. MENDEL’S EXPERIMENTS P1 parental ____ generation (_________) ____ generation (______= offspring) ___ generation F1 filial F2

  9. Principles of Dominance Section 11-1 P Generation F1 Generation F2 Generation Tall Short Tall Tall Tall Tall Tall Short

  10. crossed PURE contrasting When Mendel ______________ PLANTS with 2 ______________ traits:(EX: Tall crossed with short) He always found same pattern: 1. ONLY ______ trait ____________ in the ____generation BUT . . . 2. ___________ trait ____________ in the ____ generation in a _________ ratio ONE showed F1 Missing returned F2 3:1

  11. PATTERNS ARE THE KEY Image modified from:http://www.laskerfoundation.org/rprimers/gnn/timeline/1866.html http://www.accessexcellence.org/AB/GG/mendel.html

  12. pair of FACTORS Mendel decided that there must be a __________________ that control each trait and that one factor must be able to _______ the other. HIDE

  13. We now know that Mendel’s factors are ______ carried on ________________ _________________ genes homologous chromosomes http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/Crossover.gif

  14. Different choices for a gene are called ___________. ALLELES http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/genetics%20tutorial.htm

  15. DOMINANT HIDES __________________ = An allele that ________ the presence of another allele __________________ = An allelethat __________________ the presence of another allele RECESSIVE is hidden by

  16. PROBABILITY & PUNNETT SQUARES11-2

  17. The chance that an event will occur = ____________________ PROBABILITY It can be written as a: Fraction ____ Percent ____ Ratio ____ 1/4 25% 1:3

  18. http://www.arborsci.com/CoolStuff/CoinFlip.jpg COIN FLIP capital There are 2 possible outcomes: HEADS TAILS The chance the coin will land on either one is: ____ ____ ____ Alleles segregate randomly just like a coin flip. . . So can use probability to predict outcomes of genetic crosses. 1/2 50% 1:1

  19. DOMINANT/RECESSIVE Dominant capital _____________ allele is represented by a ____________ letter.(usually the first letter of the trait) ____________ allele is represented by the SAME _________________ letter. EX: Tall = ______ Short =______ Recessive lower-case T t NOT S for short

  20. HOMOZYGOUSHETEROZYGOUS TT tt When both alleles in the pair are the SAME Ex: ____ or _____ ____________________= ________ When both alleles in the pair are different Ex: ______ ___________________ = ______________ PURE HOMOZYGOUS Tt HYBRID HETEROZYGOUS

  21. PHENOTYPE/GENOTYPE The genetic makeup of an organism is its _____________ The appearance of an organism is its _____________ GENOTYPE PHENOTYPE

  22. PUNNETT SQUARES are used to show possible offspring from a cross between 2 parents _______________ go at top and on left side Boxes show _______________________________ Parent alleles T T T t possible offspring combinations

  23. Tall = T Round seeds = R Short = t Wrinkled seeds = r What’s the genotype? Homozygous short = ________ Heterozygous round = _____ Pure wrinkled = _____ Hybrid tall = _____ tt Tt rr Tt

  24. IN PEA PLANTS T Tall is dominant over short TALL = ____ SHORT = ____ t LET’S MAKE A CROSS! PURE TALL PURE SHORT X

  25. PURE TALL parentWhat are the parent alleles? TT _________ HOMOZYGOUS   What gametes can it make? T T

  26. PURE SHORT parent What are the parent alleles? HOMOZYGOUS tt _________   What gametes can it make? t t

  27. T T t t ALL _____ of the offspring ____ % ___/4 will be Tt T t 100 4 Tt Tt Tt TALL GENOTYPE _____ PHENOTYPE _______

  28. HYBRID TALL parent What are the parent alleles? Tt _________ HETEROZYGOUS   What gametes can it make? T t

  29. T t TT T T t TT GENOTYPES ¼ = _____ ½ = _____ ¼ = _____ Tt tt Tt tt t 3/4 75 TALL PHENOTYPES ____ or ____% _________ ____ or ____% _________ 1/4 25 SHORT

  30. PRACTICE MAKING GAMETES R Tall = ____ Round seeds = ___ Short = ____ Wrinkled seeds = ___ T t r

  31. What are the possible gametes? Homozygous Tall parent = What gametes can it produce? T T   T T

  32. What are the possible gametes? PURE wrinkled parent = What gametes can it produce? rr   r r

  33. What are the possible gametes? Heterozygous Round parent = What gametes can it produce? R r   R r

  34. What are the possible gametes? Hybrid Tall parent = What gametes can it produce? Tt   T t