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Phonological Awareness. Dr. Linda Thistlethwaite Central Illinois Adult Education Service Center (CIAESC) Western Illinois University. Contact me at Western Illinois University:. mfllt@wiu.edu Be sure to include 2 l’s. 309-298-1958. Big Picture: Phonological Processing.

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phonological awareness

Phonological Awareness

Dr. Linda Thistlethwaite

Central Illinois Adult Education Service Center (CIAESC)

Western Illinois University

contact me at western illinois university
Contact me at Western Illinois University:
  • mfllt@wiu.edu
    • Be sure to include 2 l’s.
  • 309-298-1958
big picture phonological processing
Big Picture:Phonological Processing
  • Phonological Awareness (oral language activities)
  • Word Identification (a reading activity)
  • Spelling (a writing activity)
big picture a continuum
Big Picture:A Continuum
  • Phonological/phonemic awareness
    • oral language
  • Alphabetic principal
    • concept of letter
  • Phonics (decoding and spelling)
    • matching individual letters and groups of letters to sounds
    • actually is called “phonetic recoding”
oral language
Oral Language
  • When considering phonemic/phonological awareness, we are concerned with ORAL language.
    • The written word or letter need never appear although visually focusing on the written letter or word may help to engage the learner.
four aspects of phonological awareness
Four Aspects of Phonological Awareness
  • Awareness of “word”
    • Reciting poems and nursery rhymes
    • Segmenting a phrase or sentence into component words (tapping; moving markers)
four aspects of phonological awareness7
Four Aspects of Phonological Awareness
  • Rhyme
    • Repeating rhymes
    • Predicting rhymes (after having heard them)
    • Deciding if two words rhyme
    • Choosing rhymes from alternatives
    • Predicting rhymes in context
    • Generating rhyming words in isolation
four aspects of phonological awareness8
Four Aspects of Phonological Awareness
  • Syllabication
    • Clapping a word (one clap for each syllable)
    • Blending compounds (home + work)
    • Blending words + endings (beauty + ful)
    • Segmenting words into syllables
      • beautiful = beau + ti + ful
    • Deleting syllables
      • saying cowboy without the cow
four aspects of phonological awareness9
Four Aspects of Phonological Awareness
  • Phonemic awareness
    • Phoneme: smallest unit of sound that can differentiate one word/syllable from another
    • Daddy: four phonemes
      • /d/ + /a/ + /d/ + /e/
notes
Notes
  • Sometimes all of these activities are referred to as phonemic awareness.
  • True phonemic awareness activities focus on phonemes at the “individual sound” level. They are more difficult/abstract than the dealing with words, syllables, and rhymes.
important issues
Important Issues
  • Debate #1: Should learners be encouraged to say sounds in isolation?
    • Distorts the sound
    • Is very abstract
  • Debate #2: Should learners practice phonemic awareness activities with nonsense words?
1 being aware of sound similarities and differences in words auditory discrimination
#1: Being aware of sound similarities and differences in words (auditory discrimination)
  • Give: Tom Mom
  • Ask: Which begins like Mary?
  • Begin simply:
    • Does Tom begin like Mary?
      • “Thumbs Up, Thumbs Down”
    • Does Mom begin like Mary?
2 isolating a phoneme
#2: Isolating a Phoneme
  • What is the first sound you hear in PARK?
    • What is the last sound you hear in PARK?
    • What is the middle sound you hear in PARK?
  • “Who Has a (/p/) Word to Share with Us?”
    • “Jimmy Crack Corn”
  • “What Is the Sound that Starts Each Word?”
    • “Old MacDonald Had a Farm”
2 isolating a phoneme cont
#2: Isolating a Phoneme (cont.)
  • What is the common sound you hear in these words?
    • ball, bike, bell
    • sat, meat, great
    • beans, feet, green
3 categorizing phonemes
#3 Categorizing phonemes
  • Which word begins (or ends) with a different phoneme?
    • bus, bun, rug (begins)
    • green, gas, pen (begins or ends)
  • Look at these pictures. Which pictures begin with the same sound?
4 being able to hear where a sound is in a sequence of sounds
#4: Being able to hear where a sound is in a sequence of sounds
  • Repeat these words with /sh/ at the beginning: share, ship, shine.
  • Repeat these words with the /sh/ at the end: wash, leash, dish.
  • Where do you hear the /sh/ sound in each word? dish wash show
5 blending together a sequence of sounds to form a word
#5: Blending together a sequence of sounds to form a word
  • Arm-blending
  • Use of a “slide” visual
5 blending together a sequence of sounds to form a word cont
#5: Blending together a sequence of sounds to form a word (cont.)
  • Questions:
    • What word does /sh/ + /ip/ make?
    • What word does /m/ + /a/ + /n/ make?
  • “If You Think You Know This Word, Shout it Out”
    • “If You’re Happy and You Know It, Clap Your Hands”
6 being able to segment a word into a sequence of sounds
#6: Being able to segment a word into a sequence of sounds
  • Can the learner moves tiles into line while listening to a rubberbanded word?
  • Can the learner count the number of sounds heard in a rubberbanded word (selecting cards with the right number of joined boxes)?
6 being able to segment a word into a sequence of sounds cont
#6: Being able to segment a word into a sequence of sounds (cont.)
  • Can the learner rubberband the word, stretching out the word into its distinct sounds?
  • “Tell Me All the Sounds You Heard”
    • “Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star”
7a manipulating sounds by deleting sounds
#7a: Manipulating sounds by deleting sounds
  • Which is longer: train or rain?
  • Take away the beginning sound of pat (at).
    • train-rain; trash-rash, link-ink
  • Take away the ending sound of plate (play).
    • boys-boy, ramp-ram, first-firs
7b manipulate sounds by adding sounds
#7b: Manipulate sounds by adding sounds
  • Say “tick.” Add the sound that you hear at the beginning of the word Sam to the beginning of the word tick.
  • Add /t/ to the beginning of rip.
7c manipulating sounds by substituting sounds
#7c: Manipulating sounds by substituting sounds
  • Basic strategy:
    • Say the word Tom.
    • Now substitute the sound that you hear at the beginning of Mary for the sound at the beginning of Tom.
    • Mom
7c manipulating sounds by substituting sounds cont
#7c: Manipulating sounds by substituting sounds (cont.)
  • Use the letter-sound of the day to begin each student’s name. If the sound is T=/t/:
    • Tom remains Tom.
    • Dave becomes Tave.
    • Sarah becomes Tarah.
  • “I Have a Song that We Can Sing”
    • “I’ve Been Working on the Railroad”
where to begin generally
Where to Begin (generally)
  • Working with real words is easier than working with nonsense words.
  • Dealing with bigger chunks is easier than dealing with isolated sounds.
  • Choosing is easier than producing.
  • Beginnings are easier than endings/middles.
  • Deleting sounds is easier than adding or substituting sounds.
  • Blending is easier than segmenting.
two of the easiest activities
Two of the easiest activities:
  • Identifying first sounds, especially by choosing pictures that begin with that sound
  • Blending onsets to rimes
onsets and rimes
Onsets and Rimes
  • Treat and Street
    • onsets = tr & str
    • rimes = eat & eet (two different ones)
  • Treat and Street
    • one rhyme (et)
    • two rimes (eat and eet)
two moderately difficult activities
Two moderately difficult activities:
  • Blending individual phonemes into real words
  • Deleting phonemes from words
two difficult activities
Two difficult activities:
  • Segmenting real words into phonemes
  • Blending phonemes into non-words
approaches to phonics
Approaches to Phonics
  • Synthetic Phonics
  • Analogy Phonics (Word Family Phonics)
  • Analytic Phonics
  • Phonics through Spelling
  • Embedded Phonics
synthetic phonics
Synthetic Phonics
  • You explicitly teach students to segment words into individual letters or letter combinations and to select phonemes for the letters.
analogy phonics
Analogy Phonics
  • You teach students to pronounce (or spell) a new word by making an analogy to a known word. You focus on word families.
analytic phonics
Analytic Phonics
  • This takes Analogy Phonics a step further. You teach students to analyze letter-sound relations by comparing unknown words to known words.
    • You and the students avoid pronouncing sounds in isolation.
      • Example: bar (begins like bus and ends like car)
phonics through spelling
Phonics through Spelling
  • You focus on phonics during writing experiences.
    • Teach students to segment words into phonemes and to select letters for those phonemes.
    • Teach students to compare the unknown word to a word they do know.
embedded phonics
Embedded Phonics
  • You teach phonics through real reading experiences by embedding phonics instruction into text reading.
    • This can be used with synthetic phonics, analogy phonics, and analytic phonics.
importance of phonemic awareness to belief system a
Importance of Phonemic Awareness to Belief System A
  • To those who have a sound-based approach to word identification: of great importance
    • Encourage saying sounds in isolation and view reading as an auditory activity
slide38
See “sound it out” as the primary word identification strategy
  • See phonics as something that comes BEFORE reading and writing
importance of phonemic awareness to belief system b
Importance of Phonemic Awareness to Belief System B
  • To those who have a visual approach to word identification: not important
    • Encourage comparing an unknown word to a known word on the basis of its visual characteristics
slide40
Support the analytic phonics approach while using real literature
  • See decoding and spelling as two aspects of phonics and encourage learning phoneme-grapheme relationships through spelling as much as through reading
beyond phonics analyzed words as sight words
Beyond Phonics: Analyzed Words as Sight Words
  • Two learners figure out a new word.
    • One learner puts this into long-term memory. It becomes a sight word for the learner, a word recognized immediately.
    • Another learner encounters the word again and must figure it out again -- and again, and again, and again. Each time it’s like the student has never encountered the word before!
remembering words
Remembering Words
  • Those initially taught as sight words
  • Those initially decoded but which you want learners to recognize at sight
remembering words44
Remembering Words
  • Draw the learner’s attention to the physical features of the word.
    • Talk about the letters. Make learning the word a visual activity as well as an auditory activity.
  • Write a short “story” for a particularly troublesome high-frequency word, a story that uses the word in most of the sentences.
    • Have the student practice listening for as well as reading the word in this context.
remembering words45
Remembering Words
  • Compare the word to other known words.
    • How is the troublesome word similar?
    • How is it different?
  • Have the learner cut the word apart into its separate letters and then reconstruct it, comparing it to the model.
remembering words46
Remembering Words
  • Have the student over-learn the word to the point of being able to spell it:
    • tracing it
    • writing it in the air
    • writing it with colored chalk, etc.
  • Play “Guess the Covered Word,” revealing one letter at a time.
remembering words47
Remembering Words
  • Have the learner be on the look-out for the word in anything he or she is reading:
    • making a list of the places where it was found.
  • Have the word be the mystery word for a Making Words activity.
    • Note: This activity can also be used to introduce a word that may be more difficult than most words you want student to recognize at sight.
word walls
Word Walls
  • A popular way to practice high-frequency words
    • words initially learned as sight words
    • words initially decoded which students need to recognize as sight words
word walls to practice sight words
Word Walls to Practice Sight Words
  • Display alphabetically. Perhaps add logos that can be removed.
  • Be sure the display can easily be seen by the children.
  • Use a background theme to add interest.
  • Have a second set of the words to keep in a file box; have individual sets.
adding words
Adding Words
  • Add 5 per week (4-8).
  • Focus on high-frequency words that you expect students to be able to spell as well as read.
  • Have students suggest words.
  • Perhaps include students’ names.
  • Use a special, bright color for a key word for each phonogram (word family).
other walls of words
Other Walls of Words
  • Theme Board (words temporarily displayed related to a theme)
  • Chunk Board (a key word for each phonogram, arranged alphabetically under a, e, i, o, u, and other)
    • Example: Under “i” -- sink, tip, bike
  • Words We Know Board (those taken down from the main word wall)
initial work with the words
Initial Work with the Words
  • Talk about the features.
  • Compare the word to other words on the Word Wall.
  • Clap the word parts.
spelling the word
Spelling the Word
  • Cheer the word: M! E! ME!
  • Trace the outline of the word.
    • Basement letters? Attic letters?
  • Trace the letters of the word itself.
  • Manipulate tiles to spell the word.
  • Air-write the word.
  • Spell the word; compare to the model.
practicing word wall words
Practicing Word Wall Words
  • Glue your eyes to ______.
  • A riddle: Find a word that starts like ____ and ends like _____.
  • Find a word that goes in the sentence: “I have a ________ shirt.”
  • Play “If I know ___, I can spell ___.”
practicing word wall words55
Practicing Word Wall Words
  • Do an activity from Word Wall Activities (Teacher-Created Materials).
  • Play RIVET (the first part of the activity).
  • Play Wheel of Fortune (Hangman).
  • Play Be a Mind Reader.
be a mind reader words
Be a Mind ReaderWords
  • And Room
  • Ball Since
  • Happy Tell
  • Here There
  • Moon
be a mind reader clues
Be a Mind ReaderClues
  • The word is on the Word Wall.
  • The word has four letters.
  • The word as two of the same letter.
  • The word has a double letter (two of the same letters side by side).
  • The word rhymes with soon.
  • You can use it in this sentence: “I looked up at the ________.”
using the word wall
Using the Word Wall
  • Have a center where students use magnetic letters to make Word Wall words.
  • As they are reading, have students hunt for words like a target Word Wall word.
  • Refer to the WW when helping a student decode.
  • Use a “ww” to indicated a misspelled word from the Word Wall.
summary
Summary
  • To give your students a positive start for identifying words when reading or writing:
    • help them to develop phonological awareness skills
      • and remember that learning relationships between letters and sounds (decoding and spelling) is both an auditory and visual activity.
slide60
If your students are having difficulty pronouncing and spelling words:
    • Step back and be sure that their phonological awareness skills are well-developed.
slide61
Remember the ORAL LANGUAGE Building Blocks for Word Identification and Spelling:
    • Awareness of word
    • Ability to rhyme
    • Ability to segment, blend, and manipulate syllables and word parts
    • Ability to hear, say, categorize, blend, segment, and manipulate individual sounds within words