DOM 511 PROJECT MANAGEMENT. Project managers juggles numerous activities. The art of project management. Technological change Customer and management expectations Documentation and communication Time and resource constraints Managing people Organizational change and complexity
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DOM 511 PROJECT MANAGEMENT
The art of project management • Technological change • Customer and management expectations • Documentation and communication • Time and resource constraints • Managing people • Organizational change and complexity • Contractors and vendors • Methodologies and tools • Systems development life cycle
PROJECT • Project – a [temporary] sequence of unique, complex, and connected activities having one goal or purpose and that must be completed by specific time, within budget, and according to specification
Project Definition • Work that has a beginning and an end • Work that can be performed by an external consultant for a specified time • Work that leads to a measurable change
Examples • Planning a conference • Moving office • Organizing a social event • Introducing new service/ product • Changing a management process • Office automation
Project management – the process of scoping, planning, staffing, organizing, directing, and controlling the development of an acceptable system at a minimum cost within a specified time frame.
Poor Expectations Management Scope creep – the unexpected and gradual growth of requirements during an information systems project. Feature creep– the uncontrolled addition of technical features to a system.
MEASURES OF SUCCESS • The resulting information system is acceptable to the customer. • The system was delivered ‘on time.’ • The system was delivered “within budget.” • The system development process had a minimal impact on ongoing business operations
CAUSES OF PROJECT FAILURE • Lack of organization’s commitment to the system development methodology • Failure to establish upper-management commitment to the project • Taking shortcuts through or around the system development methodology
Poor expectations management • Premature commitment to a fixed budget and schedule • Poor estimating techniques • Over optimism • Inadequate people management skills
Failure to adapt to business change • Insufficient resources • Failure to “manage to the plan”
FUNCTIONS OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT • Scoping – setting the boundaries of the project, understand context and complexity of the project • Planning – identifying the tasks required to complete the project
Estimating – identifying the resources required to complete the project • Scheduling – developing the plan to complete the project • Organizing – making sure members understand their roles and responsibilities
Controlling – monitoring progress Directing – coordinating the project Closing – (natural or unnatural termination) assessing success and failure
Effective project management helps ensure that system development projects meet customer expectations and are delivered within budget and time constraints.
SHIFT IN TYPES OF PROJECTS • Before-stand-alone operations • Now-packaged software (e.g. ERPs and data warehouse systems
Legacy applications are being modified to B2B transactions, new web-based interlaces are also being added to existing systems • Global software (outsourcing) to be integrated into the organization software
PROJECT MANAGEMENT SKILLS: • Management skills • Leadership skills • Technical skills • Conflict management skills • Customer relationship • Risk and change management
MANAGEMENT SKILLS Getting projects completed through the effective utilization of resources. • Defining and sequencing activities • Communicating expectations • Assigning resources to activities • Monitoring outcomes
LEADERSHIP SKILLS • Influencing the activities of others towards the attainment of a common goal through the use of intelligence, personality and ability.
Be Consistent. • Provide Support. • Don’t Make Promises You Can’t Keep. • Praise in Public; Criticize in Private. • Be Aware of Morale Danger Points.
Set Realistic Deadlines. • Set Perceivable Targets. • Explain and Show, Rather Than Do. • Don’t Rely Just on [Status Reports]. • Encourage a Good Team Spirit.
TECHNICAL SKILLS Designing and sequencing activities to attain project goals • Interpreting system specifications • Defining activities and their sequence • Making trade-offs between alternative solutions • Designing solutions to problems
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT SKILLS Managing conflicts within a project team to assure that conflict is not too high or too low • Problem solving • Smoothing out personality differences • Setting goals • Compromising
CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP • Working closely with customers to assure project deliverables meet expectations. • Site preparation and user training • Contact point for customers
RISK AND CHANGE MANAGEMENT Identifying, assessing and managing the risks anKd day-to-day changes that occur during a project • Environment scanning • Risk and opportunity identification and assessment • Forecasting • Resource redeployment
PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESS • Initiating project • Planning project • Executing project • Closing down project The environment is one of the continual change and problem solving.
INITIATING PROJECT • Establishing the project initiation team • Establishing a relationship with the customer • Establishing the project initiation plan
Establishing management procedures • Establishing the project management environment and project work book
PLANNING PROJECT • Describing project scope, alternatives, and feasibility • Dividing the project into manageable tasks • Estimating resources and creating a resource plan
Developing a preliminary schedule • Developing a communication plan • Determining project standards and procedures • Creating a preliminary budget • Identifying and assessing risk • Developing a statement of work • Setting a baseline project plan
EXECUTING PROJECT • Executing the baseline project plan • Monitoring project progress against the baseline project plan • Maintaining the project workbook • Communicating the project status
CLOSING DOWN PROJECT • Closing down the project • Conducting post-project reviews • Closing the customer contract
A project manager manages the: • Resources • Activities Needed to complete the • Tasks information system project System development projects are undertaken for two primary reasons:
To solve business problems • To take advantage of business opportunities Once a potential project has been identified, the organization must determine the resources required for its completion by:
Analyzing scope of the project • Determining the probability of successful completion • After which the organization determines whether taking advantage of business opportunities or solving business problem is feasible
Tools to be used while managing the project (project workbook) for all project correspondence: • Inputs • Outputs • Deliverables
Procedures • Standards established The outcome of initiating the project activity is the decision to continue, modify or abandon the project. Once a decision is made to continue, a much more detailed plan is developed during the planning activity
PROJECT PLANNING a) Describe Scope, alternatives and feasibility Understand content and complexity of the type of the project by asking the following questions: • What problem or opportunity does the project address?
What are the quantifiable results to be achieved? • How will success be measured • What needs to be done • How shall we know when we are finished
CHARACTERISTICS OF A ‘TASK’ • Task can be done by one person or a well defined group • one identifiable deliverable has a known method or technique • well-accepted procedures and success steps
Is measurable so that percent completion can be determined c) Estimating the resources and creating resources plan (People most important and expensive resource influence the completion and overall quality of a system
d) Developing preliminary schedule (Gantt chart Critical Path and PERT) PERT: Program Evaluation Review technique
Network diagrams show: • The sequence dependencies between tasks • Tasks could be done parallel • Show slack time within the rectangle (earliest start and latest finish duration
Specify Intertask Dependencies • Finish-to-start (FS)—The finish of one task triggers the start of another task. • Start-to-start (SS)—The start of one task triggers the start of another task. • Finish-to-finish (FF)—Two tasks must finish at the same time. • Start-to-finish (SF)—The start of one task signifies the finish of another task.
Optimistic • Pessimistic Estimates for task Critical path scheduling is a scheduling technique whose order and duration of sequence of task a activities directly affects the completion date of a project.
The critical path is the shortest time a project can be completed Slack time: the amount of time an activity can he delayed without delaying the whole project