TYPES OF ROCK and THE ROCK CYCLE. IGNEOUS ROCK- formed when molten rock cools and solidifies. As the rock cools, minerals crystallize and grow. Extrusive igneous rock - cools quickly on the Earth ’ s surface (small crystals) Ex: Basalt, Obsidian
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IGNEOUS ROCK-formed when molten rock cools and solidifies. As the rock cools, minerals crystallize and grow.
Extrusive igneous rock- cools quickly on the Earth’s surface (small crystals)
Ex: Basalt, Obsidian
Air bubbles are sometimes trapped (pumice, scoria)
Intrusive igneous rocks- cools slowly under the Earth’s surface (large crystals)
Ex: granite, gabbro
2. SEDIMENTARY ROCK- formed from compressed or cemented layers of sediment
*starts with rock being weathered (broken down) by wind/rain/ice
*then the sediments move to lakes and seas and sink
Layers form as larger sediments sink first and smaller sediments stay “suspended”
Conglomerate = pebbles
Sandstone = sand
Mudstone = mud (if it’s flaky it’s called shale)
Limestone = made mostly of fossils and shells of sea creatures
Sediments compacted and cemented
3. METAMORPHIC ROCK- rock that changes form under heat/pressure deep within the Earth
* Heat and/or pressure is great over long amounts of time, but the rock does not melt.
Limestone --------> Marble
METAMORPHIC ROCKS: Changing under heat/pressure