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Model of Memory. RETRIEVAL. Turning now to Long-Term Memory. ATTENTION. Sensory Memory. Short-Term Memory. Long-Term Memory. Sensory Signals. REHEARSAL. Distinctions in LTM. Let’s review the major distinctions made in describing aspects of LTM. Distinctions in LTM.

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Model of Memory


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    1. Model of Memory RETRIEVAL Turning now to Long-Term Memory ATTENTION Sensory Memory Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory Sensory Signals REHEARSAL

    2. Distinctions in LTM • Let’s review the major distinctions made in describing aspects of LTM

    3. Distinctions in LTM • Let’s review the major distinctions made in describing aspects of LTM • What is “Declarative Memory”

    4. Distinctions in LTM • Let’s review the major distinctions made in describing aspects of LTM • What is “Declarative Memory” • Memory you can talk about • Conscious access • Includes semantic and episodic memory

    5. Distinctions in LTM • Let’s review the major distinctions made in describing aspects of LTM • What is “Semantic Memory”

    6. Distinctions in LTM • Let’s review the major distinctions made in describing aspects of LTM • What is “Semantic Memory” • Memory for facts, knowledge

    7. Distinctions in LTM • Let’s review the major distinctions made in describing aspects of LTM • What is “Episodic Memory”

    8. Distinctions in LTM • Let’s review the major distinctions made in describing aspects of LTM • What is “Episodic Memory” • Biographical • Episodes of your life • Has a temporal context

    9. Distinctions in LTM • Let’s review the major distinctions made in describing aspects of LTM • What is “Procedural Memory”

    10. Distinctions in LTM • Let’s review the major distinctions made in describing aspects of LTM • What is “Procedural Memory” • How to do things • “non-declarative” …you don’t have to describe what you’re doing to yourself as you do it

    11. Distinctions in LTM • Let’s review the major distinctions made in describing aspects of LTM • What is encoding?

    12. Distinctions in LTM • Let’s review the major distinctions made in describing aspects of LTM • What is encoding? • Storing information associated with an event or a fact • Linking that information to associated items in memory

    13. Distinctions in LTM • Let’s review the major distinctions made in describing aspects of LTM • What is retrieval? • Recall • Reconstructing aspects of an event (i.e. not like video playback) • Reactivating the links associated during encoding

    14. Distinctions in LTM • Let’s review the major distinctions made in describing aspects of LTM • What is the distinction between “implicit” and “explicit”

    15. Distinctions in LTM • Let’s review the major distinctions made in describing aspects of LTM • What is the distinction between “implicit” and “explicit” • Implicit memories don’t enter the contents of awareness • Explicit memories can enter into the contents of awareness

    16. Distinctions in LTM • Let’s review the major distinctions made in describing aspects of LTM • What is the distinction between “unavailable” and “inaccessible”

    17. Distinctions in LTM • Let’s review the major distinctions made in describing aspects of LTM • What is the distinction between “unavailable” and “inaccessible” • Unavailable memories are not encoded in the brain…either lost or never encoded • “inaccessible” memories are encoded but cannot be retrieved (e.g. repressed memory)

    18. Distinctions in LTM • Let’s review the major distinctions made in describing aspects of LTM • What is the “misinformation effect”?

    19. Distinctions in LTM • Let’s review the major distinctions made in describing aspects of LTM • What is the “misinformation effect”? • Inaccuracies can be introduced to episodic memories when they are retrieved

    20. Repressed Memories • What is Loftus’ main concern about DE-repressed memories?

    21. Repressed Memories • What is Loftus’ main concern about DE-repressed memories? • Memory may be inaccurate • Confidence in memory may be inaccurate • Hard to know accuracy despite a vivid episodic memory

    22. Modular memory systems • We saw evidence that working memory is modular • Visuospatial sketchpad • Articulatory loop

    23. Modular memory systems • Are long-term memories also modular?

    24. Modular memory systems • Are long-term memories also modular? • Yes – best evidence is from patients with brain injury • dissociations

    25. Modular memory systems • Damage to the Hippocampus leads to amnesia • Specifically episodic memory

    26. Modular memory systems • Damage to the Hippocampus leads to amnesia • Specifically episodic memory • Often severe anterogradeamnesia • Can’t encode new memories

    27. Modular memory systems • Damage to the Hippocampus leads to amnesia • Specifically episodic memory • Often severe anterogradeamnesia • Can’t encode new memories • Often some degree of retrograde amnesia • Can’t retrieve old memories

    28. Modular memory systems • Damage to the Hippocampus leads to amnesia • Hippocampal-dependent amnesia dissociates declarative episodic memory from other kinds of memory • Intact procedural memories • Intact semantic memories • Intact implicit memory

    29. Long-Term Memory • Characteristics (intuitive with some introspection): • Persists indefinitely (up to decades!) • Requires no active process of rehearsal (at least that we are conscious of)

    30. Some Distinctions in LTM • Declarative/Non-Declarative • Declarative memory is for the sort of information that can become explicit – facts (semantic), autobiographical events (episodic) • The term explicit memory is often associated to convey that such memories are accesible to conscious awareness

    31. Some Distinctions in LTM • Declarative/Non-Declarative • Non-declarative memory is for the sort of information that is used without explicit awareness – how to do an action (procedural) • The term implicit memory is often associated to convey that such memories affect behaviour without awareness

    32. Some Distinctions in LTM • Declarative Memory: • Episodic Memory: memory of an event in your life • autobiographical • has a temporal context - something about time is encoded along with the memory

    33. Some Distinctions in LTM • Declarative Memory: • Semantic Memory: memory of facts, knowledge of the world • unconnected to an autobiographical event • no temporal context

    34. Some Distinctions in LTM • Procedural Memory: memory for actions

    35. Semantic Memory • Capacity is huge (unlimited?)

    36. Semantic Memory • Structure of encoding is associative

    37. Semantic Memory • Structure of encoding is associative • Evidence: Semantic Priming in a Lexical-Decision Task • Priming: prior exposure to some stimulus modifies subsequent processing of a target

    38. Semantic Memory • Structure of encoding is associative • Evidence: Semantic Priming in a Lexical-Decision Task • Lexical Decision Task: Subject is shown a target word or pronounceable non-word (eg. gap orbap) and must respond “word” or “non-word”

    39. Semantic Memory • Structure of encoding is associative • Evidence: Semantic Priming in a Lexical-Decision Task • manipulation: prime can be either related or unrelated to the target word

    40. Semantic Memory • Structure of encoding is associative • Evidence: Semantic Priming in a Lexical-Decision Task • result: words are identified faster when preceded by a semantically related prime Prime + Target = Response “space” “gap” fast “truck” “gap” slow

    41. Semantic Memory • Structure of encoding is associative • Other evidence: memory can be triggered by recalling related facts

    42. Semantic Memory • Structure of encoding is associative • Interpretation: • the representation of information in semantic memory is associative: • each fact or piece of knowledge is stored along with its relationship to other stored information • related items can activate each other which facilitates recall

    43. Episodic Memory • Memory for an episode or event in your own life • Has temporal context (entails a sense of duration and date) • examples: • recall breakfast • what happened this weekend

    44. Recalling Episodic Memory • Recall is highly sensitive to context - Similarities in context (especially smell) can trigger vivid recollections

    45. Recalling Episodic Memory • Memory is affected by the nature of your engagement with the information • Levels-of-Processing Theory

    46. Recalling Episodic Memory • Memory is affected by the nature of your engagement with the information • Levels-of-Processing Theory • Consider this experiment: List CAT pie PILLOW TREE • Method of Learning • stating capitals or lower-case • repeating words • putting words into a sentence Recall is tested some time later.

    47. Recalling Episodic Memory • Memory is affected by the nature of your engagement with the information • Levels-of-Processing Theory • Consider this experiment: List CAT pie PILLOW TREE • Result: • Best recall with “deep” processing • Worst recall with “surface” processing

    48. Recalling Episodic Memory • Memory is affected by the nature of your engagement with the information • Interpretation: • the successful use of memory depends on the number of connections that are made between related items and the degree to which these are initially activated