In your mind, picture organisms that you think may live in a forest. Then, write about one of the organisms. Tell what part of the forest the organisms may live in and how it survives.
Biodiversity - is the variety of species, their genetic make-up, and the natural communities in which they occur.
What is ecology? Ecology-the scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environments, focusing on energy transfer • It is a science of relationships.
What do you mean by environment? The environment is made up of two factors: Biotic factors- all living organisms inhabiting the Earth Abiotic factors- nonliving parts of the environment (i.e. temperature, soil, light, moisture, air currents)
Biosphere Ecosystem Community Population Organism
Organism-any unicellular or multicellular form exhibiting all of the characteristics of life, an individual. • The lowest level of organization
Population-a group of organisms of one species living in the same place at the same time that interbreed and compete with each other for resources (ex. food, mates, shelter)
Community- several interacting populations that inhabit a common environment and are interdependent.
Ecosystem-populations in a community and the abiotic factors with which they interact (ex. marine, terrestrial)
Biosphere- life supporting portions of Earth composed of air, land, fresh water, and salt water. • The highest level of organization
“The ecological niche of an organism depends not only on where it lives but also on what it does. By analogy, it may be said that the habitat is the organism's ‘address’, and the niche is its ‘profession’, biologically speaking.” Odum - Fundamentals of Ecology
Niche -the role a species plays in a community (job) Habitat- the place in which an organism lives out its life (address) Habitat vs. Niche
A niche is determined by the tolerance limitations of an organism, or a limiting factor. Limiting factor- any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence of organisms in a specific environment. Habitat vs. Niche
Habitat vs. Niche • Examples of limiting factors- • Amount of water • Amount of food • Temperature
Feeding Relationships • There are 3 main types of feeding relationships 1. Producer- Consumer 2. Predator- Prey 3. Parasite- Host
Feeding Relationships Producer- all autotrophs (plants),they trap energy from the sun • Bottom of the food chain
Feeding Relationships Consumer- all heterotrophs: they ingest food containing the sun’s energy • Herbivores • Carnivores • Omnivores • Decomposers
Feeding Relationships Consumer- Herbivores • Eat plants • Primary consumers • Prey animals
Feeding Relationships Consumer-Carnivores-eat meat • Predators • Hunt prey animals for food.
Feeding Relationships Consumer- Carnivores- eat meat • Scavengers • Feed on carrion, dead animals
Feeding Relationships Consumer- Omnivores -eat both plants and animals
Feeding Relationships Consumer- Decomposers • Breakdown the complex compounds of dead and decaying plants and animals into simpler molecules that can be absorbed
The barnacles live on the whale’s skin and feed on the resources near the whale while remains unaffected directly or indirectly. A stampede of African mammals destroys the savannah grass as they run over it to get to a watering hole. The grass is crushed and dies, but this does not benefit or harm the animals in any way.
3. Males of the stream goby Rhinogobius sp. Dark type court females in deep pools and care for the eggs under stones in shallow riffles. In field observations, larger males win in fighting with other males. 4.Mistletoe is plant that lives and grows in trees. Its roots grow into the tree’s tissue in order to obtain food and water. The tree may become weak from loss of these nutrients.
4. In lichens the fungus benefits from the algae because fungi, having no chlorophyll, cannot photosynthesize their own food. A lichen’s fungal part is thus “ fed” by its photosynthesizing algal part. The algae benefit from the association because the fungus is better able to find, soak up, and retain water and nutrients than the algae. Also, the fungus gives the resulting lichen shape, and provides the reproductive structures. 5. House flies and mosquitoes are both present in one place. These organisms do not affect each other, directly or indirectly, since they have different resources of food.
Symbiotic Relationships 3 Types of symbiosis: 1. Commensalism 2. Parasitism 3. Mutualism Symbiosis- two speciesliving together
Symbiotic Relationships Commensalism- one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped Ex. orchids on a tree Epiphytes: A plant, such as a tropical orchid or a bromeliad, that grows on another plant upon which it depends for mechanical support but not for nutrients. Also called aerophyte, air plant.
Symbiotic Relationships Commensalism- one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped Ex. polar bears and cyanobacteria
Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism- one species benefits (parasite) and the other is harmed (host) • Parasite-Host relationship
Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism- parasite-host Ex. lampreys, leeches, fleas, ticks,tapeworm
Symbiotic Relationships Mutualism- beneficial to both species Ex. cleaning birds and cleaner shrimp
Symbiotic Relationships Mutualism- beneficial to both species Ex. lichen
Ammensalism • Association between two species in which one is inhibited or destroyed and the other is unaffected. A black walnut secrete chemicals from its roots that harms neighboring plants
algal blooms can lead to the death of many species of fish, however the algae do not benefit from the deaths of these individuals.
when penicillum (bread mold), secretes penicillin and kills bacteria. The penicillum does not benefit from killing the bacteria
Neutralism • relationshipbetween two species which interact but do not affect each other. • None of the organisms are harmed or benefitted
Neutralism • Example: the tarantulas living in a desert and the cacti living in a desert
Trophic Levels • Each link in a food chain is known as a trophic level. • Trophic levels represent a feeding step in the transfer of energy and matter in an ecosystem.