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Chapter 1 The Big Picture

Chapter 1 The Big Picture

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Chapter 1 The Big Picture

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  1. Chapter 1The Big Picture

  2. Computing Systems Computing systems are dynamic entities used to solve problems and interact with their environment. They consist of devices, programs, and data. 2

  3. Computing Systems Hardware - The physical elements of a computing system (printer, circuit boards, wires, keyboard…). Software - The programs that provide the instructions for a computer to execute. Data - Information in a form a computer can use. 3

  4. Layers of a Computing System Communication Application Operating System Programming Hardware Information 4

  5. Abstraction Abstraction - A mental model that removes complex details. This is a key concept. Abstraction will reappear throughout the course – be sure you understand it! 5

  6. Abacus (2400 BC) 6

  7. Pascaline -Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) 6

  8. Staffelwalze -Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716)

  9. Loom Joseph Jacquard (1801) 6

  10. Difference Engine - Charles Babbage (1792-1871)

  11. Analytical Engine - Charles Babbage

  12. Augusta Ada Byron (Lovelace)

  13. Adding MachineWilliam Burroughs (1857-1898)

  14. Electro-mechanical TabulatorHerman Hollerith (1860-1929)

  15. Early History of Computing • Alan Turing (1912-1954) • Turing Machine- an abstract mathematical model • Early computers launch new era in mathematics, physics, engineering and economics. • Harvard Mark I (1939) • ENIAC - Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator • EDVAC - Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer • first machine with a stored program • UNIVAC I - Universal Automatic Computer (1951) 7

  16. First Generation Hardware (1951-1959) Vacuum Tubes Large, not very reliable, generated a lot of heat Magnetic Drum Memory device that rotated under a read/write head Card Readers  Magnetic Tape Drives Sequential auxiliary storage devices 8

  17. Second Generation Hardware (1959-1965) Transistor Replaced vacuum tubefast, small, durable, cheap Magnetic Cores Replaced magnetic drumsinformation available instantly Magnetic Disks Replaced magnetic tapedata can be accessed directly 9

  18. Third Generation Hardware (1965-1971) Integrated Circuits Replaced circuit boardssmaller, cheaper, faster, more reliable Transistors Now used for memory construction Terminal An input/output device with a keyboard and screen 10

  19. Fourth Generation Hardware (1971-?) Large-scale Integration Great advances in chip technology PCs, the Commercial Market, Workstations Personal Computers were developed as new companies like Apple and Atari came into being. Workstations emerged. 11

  20. Parallel Computing and Networking Parallel Computing Computers rely on interconnected central processing units that increase processing speed. Networking With the Ethernet protocol, small computers could be connected and share resources. File servers connected PCs in the late 1980s. ARPANET(1969) and LANs Internet 12

  21. First Generation Software (1951-1959) Machine Language Computer programs were written in binary (1s and 0s). Assembly Languages and translators Programs were written in artificial programming languages and were then translated into machine language. Programmer Changes Programmers divide into application programmers and systems programmers. 13

  22. Second Generation Software (1959-1965) High Level Languages English-like statements make programming easier. Fortran, COBOL, Lisp are examples. High-Level Languages AssemblyLanguage Machine Language 14

  23. Third Generation Software (1965-1971) • Systems Software • utility programs, • language translators, • and the operating system, which decides which programs to run and when. • Separation between Users and Hardware Computer programmers began to write programs to be used by people who did not know how to program. 15

  24. Third Generation Software (1965-1971) Application Package Systems Software High-Level Languages Assembly Language Machine Language 16

  25. Fourth Generation Software (1971-1989) • Structured Programming • Pascal, C, C++ • New Application Software for Users • spreadsheets • word processors • database management systems 17

  26. Fifth Generation Software (1990- present) Microsoft The Windows operating system, and other Microsoft application programs dominate the market. Object-Oriented Design Based on a hierarchy of data objects (i.e. Java). World Wide Web Allows easy global communication through the Internet. New Users Today’s user needs no computer knowledge. 18

  27. Computing as a Tool Programmer / User Systems Programmer (builds tools) Applications Programmer (uses tools) Domain-Specific Programs User with No Computer Background 20