Unit 2 Forming a New Nation
Warm-up What do you know about life in “America” at this point? (It is about 1750)
Answer: 13 British colonies French and Spanish colonies too 13 colonies can be divided into 3 regions; New England, Middle, and Southern colonies Different economic systems, cultures, and religions for each of the 3 regions The colonies are starting to form their own governments
Section 5.1 FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR
WHO FOUGHT? Britain & Colonists VS. France & Indians British French settlers (and Native Americans)
Also known as the Seven Years’ War…..Why? • This war involved over 2o nations and was fought in Europe and Africa. It lasted 7 years. • Americans call it the French and Indian War because we only participated in the part that took place in North America.
WHY THEY FOUGHT? 3)France and Britain have fought for centuries 1) Fertile Soil in the Ohio Valley 2) Fur to trade
WHY DID THE INDIANS HELP THE FRENCH? The Indians helped the French because they had better relationships and they believed that the French would win.
Ben Franklin’s 1754 cartoon was a plea for unity in defending the colonies during the French and Indian War.His plan for unity was called the Albany Plan of Union
HOW DID THE NATIVE AMERICANS HELP? • They knew the land • They were local soldiers • Guerilla fighting style
HOW DID THE WAR BEGIN? • French controlled most of the land in North America. • The English wanted to expand their territory... westward. • Because the English were starting to move into French territory, the French attacked. • Both groups were fighting over the Ohio River Valley
WHEN AND WHERE? • Ft. Necessity-set up by George Washington and militia (civilians trained to fight) • Washington was outnumbered, so he surrendered • French took over the fort and later burned it
WHO IS GENERAL EDWARD BRADDOCK? • After Washington was defeated at Ft. Necessity, England appointed General Edward Braddock became commander in chief of the British.
WHEN AND WHERE? • On July 9, 1755 the French and Native Americans ambushed the British at Ft. Duquesne. They fired from behind trees, aiming at the bright uniforms. • The British were confused and frightened. • Braddock called for a retreat. • Braddock was killed along with many others. • British lost this battle Washington claimed he was more scared during the ambush at Ft. Duquesne than at any other point in his life.
BRITAIN DECLARES WAR ON FRANCE • Great Britain’s fortunes improved after William Pitt came to power as Secretary of State and then Prime Minister (of England). • He sent British troops to North America under the command of Jeffrey Amherst and James Wolfe. • The first years of the war were disastrous for the British and the American colonies. • The Native Americans destroyed and burned many homes. Jeffrey Amherst James Wolfe
THE FALL OF NEW FRANCE • British troops attacked Quebec. James Wolfe finds a poorly guarded path, surprises and defeats the French (dies in the battle) • A year later, Jeffery Amherst captures Montreal • This brought an end to the war
Treaty of Paris(1763) • Officially ended the French and Indian War • French can keep sugar producing islands in the West Indies, but must give up Canada, and the land east of the Mississippi to Great Britain • French agreed not to own any of the colonies
FYI: • In the midst of the French and Indian War Ben Franklin suggested the Albany Plan of Union. • This plan called for a council that would have authority over the western settlements, relations with the Natives, and other urgent matters. • It could also organize armies and collect taxes. The plan was rejected because each colony wanted to maintain control.
Warm-up Who fought in the French and Indian War and why did they fight? What was the outcome? This is a map of America after the war
Answer: Why 1) fertile soil 2) fur to trade 3) France and Britain have fought for centuries Outcome Treaty of Paris, England & Colonists win Who fought England/ Colonists- now Americans France and the Native Americans
Section 5.2The Colonists Resist Tighter Control • England had finally pushed the French out, but they had gone into debt due to the war. • The English government decided to make the Americans pay for the war with taxes. This would cause them to rebel. • However, the colonists had bigger problems. They were also still fighting with the Native Americans. King George III
Conflict with Native Americans PONTIAC’S WAR • Ottawa Chief who brought together numerous tribes to fight the colonists • They tormented the settlers (esp. west) • He could not obtain Fort Detroit, Fort Pitt, or Fort Niagara
PROCLAMATION OF 1763 • To stop the vicious fighting between the colonists and Native Americans, George III declared the Appalachian Mountains to be the western boundary for the colonies. • This angered many colonists who believed they had the right to reside wherever they wanted. The proclamation was widely ignored and proved impossible for the British to enforce. The 1763 "Proclamation line" is the red line
British Rule Leads to Conflict • Although the colonies had started to unite, the 13 colonies were still divided in many ways • But, they saw themselves as different from people living in Britain • The British, however saw things differently. They thought the colonists should pay for their part in the war. • This difference in opinion leads to problems between the colonists and England. The 1763 "Proclamation line" is the red line
The Sugar Act • Sugar Act – Import tax on molasses (& other products) • It actually lowered the Molasses Act tax so it was intended to stop the smuggling (Navigation Acts) 1764 King George
The Quartering Act • This act was an indirect tax for the colonists. Under the law, the colonists had to give quarters (a home), food, and transportation to the British soldiers.
The Stamp Act • Colonists had to buy special stamps and place them on newspapers, wills, licenses, insurance policies, land titles, contracts, & other documents. November 1 ,1765 (takes effect)
Patrick Henry • Patrick Henry was one of the most outspoken opponents of the Stamp Act • He convinced colonists to act together against the acts which led to a boycott of British goods and violence in the colonies. Stamp Act protesters burned homes of officials in protest
Colonists sent a petition to the King and Parliament that demanded the end to both the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act. The protests worked and Parliament repealed the Stamp Act. Left: Tarring and feathering of a British excise man by a Liberty Tree.Right: A tax collector being tarred and feathered in 1774.
Townshend Acts • Set up a system to tax items coming into the colonies • Taxes were placed on glass, paint, lead, paper, and tea imported into the colonies • Passed by Parliament on June 1767 • Britain hoped these taxes would not upset the colonists
Writs of Assistance • - This allowed British soldiers search houses, ships and warehouses for smuggled goods They were legalized by the Townshend Act of 1767.
The Boston Massacre What was the cause of the Boston Massacre? Colonists rioting because of taxes. On March 5, 1770, a crowd of rowdy Bostonians gathered around a small group of British soldiers guarding the Boston Customs House. The soldiers were being harassed by the colonists. Colonists were throwing rocks and snowballs at the soldiers. The frightened soldiers fired into the crowd. Their shots hit and killed a number of civilians .
5 colonists were killed • 6 colonists were wounded • Crispus Attucks, a free African American sailor was the first to die at the massacre.
The Boston Massacre • Paul Revere created an engraving that was used as propaganda • to influence colonists against the British. • Propaganda is an item used to influence opinion
Here is how the article appeared in newspapers and what was written in the article printed with Paul Revere’s engraving.
Sam Adams • As protests spread, groups began to organize against England • Sons of Liberty: Organized protests (often violent) against British acts and policies
Abigail Adams • Daughters of Liberty: • Organized boycotts against British products. Found ways to make needed items.
Committee of Correspondence • Created after the Boston Massacre by Samuel Adams • Created to keep colonists informed of British actions. Wrote letters and pamphlets.
Warm-up What was the Stamp Act and how did the colonists respond to it?
This placed a tax on paper products. (Wills, licenses, deeds, etc) Tarring and feathering, and burning tax collectors homes were responses.
Section 5.3 Protest to Rebellion
Tea Act • British East India Tea Company could sell tea in America without paying tax on it (cheapest tea in town) • This put many other tea sellers out of business, especially the smugglers The Tea Act was the only piece of the Townshend Acts not to be repealed. They called it by a new name so the colonists would not get mad. But many of the colonists were still upset because it meant that only British tea could be sold in the colonies. This led to the Boston Tea Party.
Intolerable Acts • As a result of the Boston Tea Party the English Parliament passed the… • Intolerable Acts – Included the Boston Port Bill, Quartering Act (part 2) and the Massachusetts Government Act. Make colonists pay for the tea. (also known as the Coercive Acts)
Quartering Act – Each colony had to provide a place for British troops to live, again! (colonists had ignored this law that was already in place)
Massachusetts Government Act- 1. Increased the power of the royal governor • 2. Abolished the upper house of the Massachusetts legislature • Cut the powers of town • meetings