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Unit 2- A New Nation-Early America. Chapters 4 and 5. Bell Work. What is the importance of the Constitution? What kind of government does the U.S. have? What are the roles of our branches of government? List as many of the ten amendments as you can?

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bell work
Bell Work

What is the importance of the Constitution?

What kind of government does the U.S. have?

What are the roles of our branches of government?

List as many of the ten amendments as you can?

Who is known as ‘The father of the Constitution’?

What does it mean when people say the Constitution is ‘A living document’?

a new nation a new government
A New Nation, A New Government


Without British rule, new governments must be created

The Articles of Confederation(1777-1787)

State governments:

Draft constitutions with a bill of rights


Direct vote

Weak governors

Power to tax, create currency, militia, establish courts

First U.S. government

Unicameral- Congress

Each state gets one vote

Could declare war

Could make laws

Could make treaties

Create an army and navy

Postal system

Borrow money

a need for change
A Need for Change

The Articles of Confederation proves to be too weak to govern the states

No power to tax

No authority over the states

Can’t not enforce the law

No executive or judicial branch

No national currency

No ability to regulate trade

Problems of the New Nation

Spain-Florida-New Orleans


Barbary Pirates

Western Land Claims

State boundary disputes

Talk of secession

Shays Rebellion

constitutional convention
Constitutional Convention

1787-Philapedia, PA

12 of 13 states

55 delegates

Throw out articles

Big vs. little- economic differences and slavery

Virginia Plan-James Madison

Basis for constitution

3 branches

  • Fight over representation
  • New Jersey Plan
  • Great Compromise
    • Two houses
    • One by pop.
    • One for equal for the states
  • Slavery-How will they be counted?
  • 3/5ths compromise
  • Slave trade would remain open for next 20 years
a new government big ideas of the constitution
A New Government-Big Ideas of the Constitution

The Construction becomes the supreme law of the land

Limited government

Founded a representative government-Republic

Federalism- a system which power is divided between states and federal government

Check and Balances

Separation of Powers

Popular sovereignty- people choose(not Senate or President)

The Document- A living document?

Page 91

Elastic clause Article 1,section 8, 18

Taxes- Article 1, section 9, 4

Civil unrest- Article 4, section 4,

Supremacy Clause-Article 6, section 2

Slavery- Article 1, section 2, 3

Article 4, section 3

u s constitution a more perfect union

Preamble: establishes six goals of the U.S. government

To form a more perfect union

Establish justice

Insure domestic tranquility

Provide for the common defense

Promote the general welfare

Secure the blessing of liberty to ourselves and our posterity

u s constitution a more perfect union1

The founding felt the best way to prevent the abuse of power was to divide it.

Federalism: Reserved and Concurrent powers between state and national government

Supremacy Clause: Article VI: states the constitution is the “Supreme law of the land”, national supersedes state law

What are 3 powers of the national and state governments?

What are 3 shared powers?

u s constitution a more perfect union2

Checks and Balances: System to limit the powers of each branch.

debate over ratification
Debate over Ratification



9 of 13 states are needed to pass the Constitution

Ratification proves to be a difficult process

Support the constitution

Washington, Franklin, Madison, Hamilton, John Jay

Write The Federalist Papers

Patrick Henry, Jefferson, Samuel Adams

Feared a stronger national government

Wanted a clear bill of rights

the bill of rights
The Bill of Rights

The Constitution is ratified in 1788 with the guarantee of a bill of rights

James Madison drafts a copy

Passed in 1791

Refers the first ten- today there are 27

Page 102- Copy down the first 10

voting for president the constitution right that doesn t exist electoral college
Voting for President: The Constitution Right that doesn’t exist: Electoral College

The founding fathers feared direct democracy by an uninformed mob

Instead of direct democracy they choose the Electoral College

538 electors vote for President!!

Why do we still have this system?

  • Arguments For
    • Certainty of Results
    • Discourages 3rd Parties
    • Precludes Possibility of National Re-Count of Votes
    • Keeps States as Integral Part of Presidential Selection Process
    • Keeps Small States as Viable Participants
  • Arguments Against
    • Can distort popular vote
    • Discourages 3rd parties
    • Disenfranchises Voters in States Which Support Electoral College Loser
    • Allows for the "Faithless Elector"
    • It Is Archaic - Based on Political Considerations No Longer Relevant
    • Gives Undue Power to "Swing States"
electoral college essay
Electoral College Essay

Should the Electoral College system of electing President continue or be replaced?

Your answer should include specific reasons to support your position.

Due Friday-20 points

individual reports key people of the 1800 s
Individual Reports-Key People of the 1800’s

30 points- Content of information, on-time, presentation, picture

Project requirements:

Research two key figure during the 1800s (no presidents)

Give a brief power point presentation on your people (2 slides minimum, 2 pictures )

Provide background information on your person and explain their role in American History

What do they do? Why are they important? What impact to they have on history?

Picture- matted on paper, picture-name, dates, one paragraph minimum summary of person

Presentation start next Tuesday, Pictures due Tuesday

bell work1
Bell Work

Name the first four Presidents of the United States

List any events you know of in American History from 1789-1815

List two advantages and disadvantages of political parties

george washington 1 st president 1789 1797
George Washington- 1st President 1789-1797
  • Goals
    • Strengthen Government
    • Strengthen Economy
    • Remain Neutral(expect Natives)
  • Government
    • Appoints a cabinet
    • Appoint first Supreme Court-
    • Uses force to put down the Whiskey Rebellion
  • Economy
    • Alexander Hamilton
    • Pay all debts in full
    • National Bank
    • Loans to businesses
  • Neutral
    • French Revolution
    • America neutral(trade with both)
    • British stop ships, support Native American attacks
    • Washington attacks Ohio Valley tribes, surrender Ohio
george washington
George Washington

Birth of Political Parties

Farewell Address: Advice to the Nation

Alliances and foreign wars

Huge national debt

Overpowering military establishment

Political Parties

Importance of civic duty, morality, religion

Regional differences/Secession

john adams 2 nd president 1797 1801
John Adams-2nd President 1797-1801
  • Federalist
  • V.P-Jefferson (R)
  • Administration is marked by political fighting
  • Alien and Sedition Act-
    • Harder for immigrates to become citizens, Deportation
    • Limit freedom of speech and the press-No bad talking the government
thomas jefferson 1801 1809
Thomas Jefferson 1801-1809

“Revolution of 1800”-peaceful transfer of power

Democratic-Republican(V.P. Aaron Burr)

Less government-Common man

Marbury v. Madison-Judicial Review

Neutral- Embargo of 1807-hurts U.S. economy

the louisiana purchase 1803
The Louisiana Purchase 1803

Purchase from France

15 million or 4 cents an acre

Doubles the nation

Lewis and Clark Expedition-Sacajawea

Opens to door to the west and sets America’s future path

james madison 4 th president 1809 1817
James Madison-4th President 1809-1817

Democratic – Republican

Guides America through the War of 1812

reading assignment
Reading Assignment

Read Chapter 4 section 3 pages 112-118 and Chapter 5, section pages 130-135

Quiz Wednesday on the reading and the notes from last week(Articles and Constitution)

the war of 1812 1812 1815
The War of 1812(1812-1815)
  • Causes
  • 1. Trade restrictions /Impressment
  • 2. Native American Conflict
  • 3.War Hawks-land (NW TERR/Canada)
  • 4. Politics-Madison’s election, dislike Great Britain
  • 5. No Communication!
  • Effects
  • 1. British and major Indian resistance gone
  • 2.A sense of nationalism
  • 3. National hero in Andrew Jackson
  • 4.Began an era of national expansion and economic growth
  • Events
  • 1. Tecumseh is killed
  • 2.U.S. invade Canada, burn York
  • 3.British burn the White House
  • 4. Francis Scott Key writes what will become the National Anthem(Battle of Baltimore)
  • 5. Key victory-Battle of New Orleans
era of good feeling 1815 1830
Era of Good Feeling 1815-1830
  • American’s gain a national identity
    • Intense patriotism
  • Economic growth-westward expansion
    • Opening of westward land for settlement(new states)
    • New inventions, urbanization
  • Assert ourselves internationally
    • Treaties with Spain
    • Monroe Doctrine
monroe doctrine 1823
Monroe Doctrine 1823

5th President-James Monroe (1817-1825)


Improves America’s role as the dominant power of North America

Greatly aided by his Secretary of State-John Quincy Adams(6th President)

Rush-Bagot Treaty(1817)-Disarms the Great Lakes

Adams-Onis Treaty(1819)-Spain cedes Florida to the U.S.

When did America become an international power?

Monroe Doctrine- Closes the western hemisphere to European colonization

Backed by American threat of force

bell work2
Bell work

In a small group, come up with a list of possible solutions for Native Americans in dealing with the Americans.

Which one would you choose?

tecumseh and the shawnee prophet
Tecumseh and The Shawnee Prophet

Tecumseh is a Shawnee Chief

Goal is to resist American expansion

Create a sovereign Indian Nation in the Ohio/ Great Lakes Region

Attempts to build a unified Native American resistance

His brother preaches a message of cultural revival

Primary Source Reading(class)

andrew jackson 7 th president
Andrew Jackson-7th President

Born poor, rises through the army

Battle of New Orleans/Fights Creeks and Seminoles in Florida(invades)

Loses election of 1824 ‘Corrupt Bargain’

1829-1837 Elected the 7th President of the U.S.(Democrat)

Best known for……..

War Hero

Champion of the common man


Spoils system

Tariff Crisis(Secession)

Destroying the National Bank

Excessive Presidential Power

indian removal act 1830 trail of tears
Indian Removal Act 1830/Trail of Tears

Pushed by President Jackson, the act gave him the power to negotiate removal treaties of all Native American nations east of the Mississippi River.

Jackson uses the act to force nations to sign over their land in exchange for land in the west(Present day Oklahoma/Kansas)

  • The Removal Act impacts many nations, mainly “Five Civilized Tribes”
    • Cherokee
    • Choctaw
    • Chickasaw
    • Creek
    • Seminole
  • The Trail of Tears refers to the suffer and death along the route west
  • 1831-1838-46,000 moved, estimated 5,000-10,000 die
  • 25 million acres of land!
cherokee resistance
Cherokee Resistance

Fight through the court system

Worchester v. Georgia

Chief Justice John Marshall rules the Cherokee can stay, sovereign nation

Jackson- “Let him enforce it”

Video Questions

How do the Americans promote Native American assimilation?

How do the Cherokee assimilate?

Why do the Americans want the Cherokee land?

Video Two

Why do the Cherokee believe they have a good relationship with President Jackson?

Explain the difference between John Ross and Major Ridge opinion’s on how to resist removal.

What was the U.S. governments purpose for the removal?

What does the Indian Removal Act eventually create in the U.S.?

Why is the Indian Removal Act important for every American to know about?

reading assignments
Reading Assignments


1.What does President Jefferson hope Native Americans will do?

2. How does assimilation impact native tribes?

3. What role does William Henry Harrison play in these events.

4. At what battle does Tecumseh die? What dies with him?

Cherokee Primary sources

Read documents A,B,C,D and answer the questions for each document

economic growth chapter 5 section 2 pg 140 147
Economic Growth-Chapter 5, Section 2 pg. 140-147

Your group will read one section, summarize the key information and share your information with another group.

From Farms to Factories

Transportation Revolution

Politics and the Economy

  • From Farms to Factories
    • Factory System
    • Lowell Girls
  • Transportation Revolution
    • Roads-Tolls
    • Erie Canal
    • Steamboats
    • Railroads
  • Politics and the Economy
    • Henry Clay-American System
    • Mutual-dependence
    • Regional interests-Conflict
class reading
Class Reading

Primary Source-Doing Business in America