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The use of bibliometry for evaluation in Physics. D. Jérome Université Paris XI-CNRS, Past Editor in Chief of Europhysics Letters Académies des Sciences. Colloque de l’Académie des sciences "Évolution des publications scientifiques - Le regard des chercheurs" des 14-15 mai 2007 .

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the use of bibliometry for evaluation in physics
The use of bibliometry for evaluation in Physics

D. Jérome

Université Paris XI-CNRS, Past Editor in Chief of Europhysics Letters

Académies des Sciences

Colloque de l’Académie des sciences "Évolution des publications scientifiques - Le regard des chercheurs" des 14-15 mai 2007

AS 14-15 Mai

the need for evaluation
The need for evaluation

Basic Research activity is supported to a large extent by States

Decide for support: positions, equipment, running money

Evaluation (for individuals, labs, domains, universities,

research organisms,..) of the past (recognition, ranking of scientists)

and of the future (positions, grants,..)

Evaluation committees, peer reviews analysing scientific output

Use of bibliometry, What and how?.

AS 14-15 Mai

databases
Databases

Existence of web-databases with inverted bibliographic data

for citation analysis

Google Scholar scholar.google.com free

Scopus (Elsevier) scopus.com

NASA ADS adsdoc.harvard.edu free

ISI Thomson http://portal.isiknowledge.com

Web of Sciences

JCR

ISI---> Journals, Google scholar--->Books, conferences (Belew 2005)

AS 14-15 Mai

10 most cited articles 2000 02 up to now
10% most cited articles 2000-02up to now

Squew distribution

AS 14-15 Mai

impact factor of journals
Impact factor of journals

IF (year n)= means that on average each of the papers for years n-1

and n-2 are cited IF times in the year n.

Calculated every year in JCR. 2007 will give IF(2006)

Arbitrariness of the two years period for the IF

Are all journals listed? 6000 in Science and Technology

IF is an indicator for editors

Misuse of IF for the evaluation of individuals

AS 14-15 Mai

physics papers at science nature
Physics papers at Science/Nature

Time span 1975-2007

IF=30.92

IF= 29.27

First 100 papers

Mostly Bio and Medicine, a small minority of physics papers

AS 14-15 Mai

distribution of citations

68 cit/art

Distribution of citations

Nature:1852

Science:1713

>2/3 of the papers are below average citations

AS 14-15 Mai

distribution of citations at phys rev lett

17 cit/art

Distribution of citations at Phys.Rev.Lett

Papers 2003-2004

6972 papers

2/3 are below average

AS 14-15 Mai

need for other indicators
Need for other indicators

IF informs about the popularity of a journal. Ban IF factor for evaluation.

What is needed is an indicator related to the importance, quality,

influence, impact of the scientific work, not to the popularity of a journal

Physicists publish in a small number of journals nearly all listed in WoS

(test done with four major labs at University Paris XI)

May not be true for other domains (language problem)

Use of h and g indicators

AS 14-15 Mai

definitions for h and g

60

h articles with

h citations

50

40

30

Citations number

20

10

0

1

10

20

30

40

50

60

Number of the article

Definitions for h and g

J.Hirsch, 2005

L.Egghe, 2006

g

h

AS 14-15 Mai

slide13
Pros

h: -- is smoothing big hits and review articles

-- Problem when a small number of papers even

if they are brillant

-- Good correlations between h and total production

-- Extension to journals or domains is possible

-- Time dependence for comparison of different seniorities

is possible

g: -- Allows cumulative advantages on bright papers even

with a small number of papers

-- Reveals precursor papers,’’sleeping beauties’’

AS 14-15 Mai

and cons
and cons

Caution:

Technical problems : Homonymy for common names,

hyphened names

Self citations ( no dramatic changes)

Team work (the normalized h factor)

Negative citations to incorrect works

Cronyism, network of friends, circle of citations

Must be handled by scientists

AS 14-15 Mai

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Database are rather exhaustive in Physics
  • Use bibliometry with much caution and expertise (by scientists)
  • Results must be validated and agreed by persons being evaluated
  • Ban on the use of IF for assessment of individual performance
  • Use several indicators related to citations, h, g, g/h

AS 14-15 Mai