the tamil sinhala conflict in sri lanka l.
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The Tamil-Sinhala Conflict in Sri Lanka Part Two Table of Contents Effects of the conflict (slides 3-7) Peace process (slides 8-13) What would it take to achieve peace? (slides 14-17) A Short List of Effects Economic development is erratic and slow

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table of contents
Table of Contents
  • Effects of the conflict (slides 3-7)
  • Peace process (slides 8-13)
  • What would it take to achieve peace? (slides 14-17)
a short list of effects
A Short List of Effects
  • Economic development is erratic and slow
  • Social services for the entire population are inadequately funded
  • The entire population is bitterly divided along possible options to settle the conflict
  • The country is being under threat of becoming subservient to another external power
  • People are alienated and unable to plan a bright future
the economic consequences an overview
The Economic Consequences: an Overview
  • A statistical profile (World Bank Data)
  • GNI per capita:US $1,010 (World Bank, 2005)
  • But the economy has done well in the last five years
  • Is this due to the ceasefire?
  • What was the situation between 1971 and 2000?
    • The country has considerable amount of foreign debts
    • Per capita income has risen slowly
    • Inflation is high
    • The country has not achieved its potential (summary verdict of the World Bank) (full report of the World Bank)
    • The country’s ability to succeed depends on the resolution of its conflict
where has the money gone
Where has the Money Gone?
  • Increased military expenditure has consumed a large share of national income since 1982
  • The spending on health, education and welfare has not increased in proportion to the population growth
  • Infrastructure facilities are inadequate and not properly maintained
  • Tertiary education is restricted by inadequate funds and lack of enough trained lecturers
  • Information is hard to get
    • Here is a case study
    • Here is another study on poverty reduction
      • Part One
      • Part Two
retardation of economic development
Retardation of Economic Development
  • Economic development in independent Sri Lanka has been uneven regionally
  • This state of affairs has been accentuated due to various reasons since 1960
  • Unemployment and under-employment are increasing locally
  • There is internal population movement making economic development difficult at local levels
  • Industrialization is progressing very slowly
  • The conflict inflicts a heavy toll on tourism, which is a major income earning industry
social cost of the conflict
Social Cost of the Conflict
  • Displacement of people
  • A culture of fear and intimidation
  • The lost childhood for a large number of children
    • Fighting children
    • Victimized children
  • Will they ever be normal?
  • Deprivation of education and stable family life
  • Loss of life
  • Funds for the development are diverted elsewhere
ceasefire of 2002 nuts and bolts
Ceasefire of 2002: Nuts and Bolts
  • February 2002: The ceasefire was arranged by Norway working together with the UNP government (prime minister: Wickramasinghe)
  • March-May 2002: decommissioning of weapons and restoring links with Jaffna
  • September 2002: ban on the LTTE is lifted, exchange of prisoners and the drop of demand for separate state
  • December 2002: peace talks in Norway (share of power and autonomy for north and east)
behind the scene
Behind the Scene
  • It has been suggested that Norway is actually supporting the LTTE with funds and equipment
  • Norway is not an impartial mediator, to judge by its regular pro-LTTE stance
  • Norway peace monitoring mission has been partial towards the LTTE
  • Norway peace mediators (foreign ministry) have bypassed the Sri Lankan state institutions to initiate peace
    • The executive president (Chandrika Kumaratunga-Bandaranaike) was sidelined
  • A detailed analysis of Norway’s role in Sri Lanka
peace broken
Peace Broken
  • The president’s actions brought Norway’s peace mission to a grinding halt
  • April 2004: The SLFP victory at the general election
  • July 2004: first suicide blast in Colombo since 2001
  • December 2004: Tsunami
  • August 2005: Kadiragamar assassinated
  • What do these events mean?
    • The LTTE was not pleased with the fall of UNP
    • Opposed to the SLFP regime
    • Use intimidation to coax the government
new political reality
New Political Reality
  • The new coalition government consists of two parties: JVP and SLFP
  • What do they stand for?
    • JVP: extreme nationalist (pro-Sinhala) and has a violent past (since 1971)
      • Constituency
        • JVP: mostly Buddhist Sinhalese
    • SLFP: Sinhalese (and others) and pro-Buddhist but no discrimination on the ground of religion
    • SLFP: centre-left and pro-western with restrain
    • Both oppose separate state for the Tamils
    • Pro devolution of power and autonomy for north within a unitary state
    • Against Norway’s intrusive and biased intervention
opposition party
Opposition Party
  • The UNP is publicly supportive of the government, but in fact against its peace plan
  • Constituency profile
    • Mostly Sinhalese and from all religions
    • Pro-western and for unrestrained foreign investment
    • Power elite consists of mostly Christian and rich people
    • Little sympathy for traditional culture
  • Notoriously deficient in vision and the ability to bring people together
positions
Positions
  • The LTTE is unwilling to negotiate with the government
  • The government is unhappy with Norway’s intervention
  • The government is under pressure not to provide more than devolution and autonomy in regional affairs
  • The government is also under pressure to curb killings by paramilitary groups
  • The LTTE is under pressure to stop its violent activity
  • Both parties are under pressure to achieve peace
solutions
Solutions
  • Proposed solutions
    • Separate states: unacceptable to the Sinhalese and the Muslims
    • A federal state: unacceptable to the majority of people
    • Devolution of power and autonomy in regional affairs within a unitary state: acceptable to the majority of people
  • Why certain options are unacceptable
    • Separation or federal state will not end the conflict
    • A greater Tamil state with Tamilnadu is a possibility
    • It will be a catalyst for India’s brake-up
what would it take
What would it Take . . .?
  • A compromise political solution acceptable to all people
  • An equitable share of resources
  • A plan for economic development for the country as a whole
  • Justice to all communities
  • Freedom to move and live anywhere
  • Human rights recognized
  • Curb extremism
  • Charity begins at home
    • Eliminate undue external influence
aftermath
Aftermath
  • National building is essential for stability and prosperity of people
  • Education as a means to achieve understanding and cohesion
    • A greater role for English in education
    • A carefully prepared education policy to foster racial harmony
  • Cross-cultural relations have always been cordial except in rare instances
  • They should be used consciously to promote unity
grant them peace
Grant Them Peace
  • Both parties have walked back from the brink of war
  • Let us hope they will walk along the road to peace