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Standard 11 Sports, Recreation, and Tourism Examine the physical and human geographic factors associated with sports, recreation, and tourism along with the local and global consequences of these activities. 11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports

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Standard 11

Sports, Recreation, and Tourism

Examine the physical and human geographic factors associated with sports, recreation, and tourism along with the local and global consequences of these activities.

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11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports

11.2 Changing Views of Tourism and Recreation

11.3 Human and Physical Impacts of Sport, Recreation, and Tourism (in select locations)

11.4 Local Impacts of Sport and Recreation

11.5 Impacts of Tourism (environmental)

11 1 geographic distribution of sports
11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports
  • Points of Origin
    • Golf (Scotland)
    • Tennis (Europe)
    • Skiing (Scandinavia)
    • Soccer/Football (Europe, Latin America)
    • Baseball/Basketball (USA)
    • Olympics (Greece)
11 1 geographic distribution of sports4
11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports
  • Soccer/Football
    • Modern version originated in England around the mid-19th Century
    • Several locations claimed as place of origin
    • Ancient Greeks and Romans played a game with their feet and a ball, observed by Herodotus to be the head of the defeated team’s captain
    • 3rd Century BC – Soldiers during the Han Dynasty played a game where a ball would be kicked into a small net
    • Football was played in England as early as the 8th Century, with the “ball” being the head of a defeated Danish Prince
    • The game became so violent in England that King Edward III tried to abolish the game
    • The Football Association established in England in 1863 (1 set of rules)
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11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports

  • Soccer/Football
    • Early Egyptian ball made of linen from 2500 BC
    • Greek game called Episkyros, approximately 2000 BC
    • Romans later changed the name to Harpastum
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Diffusion of modern sport
    • British workmen went to South America to build railroads (econ. dev.)
    • Mass emigration from Italy to South America (political influence)
    • British troops brought the game to India
    • American Civil War soldiers played the game to relax
  • Global Sport - International competition
    • International competition began in Europe near the turn of the 20th Century
    • FIFA founded in 1904
    • First World Cup in 1930 in Montevideo, Uruguay
    • 1932 World Cup final was the first to be broadcast on radio
    • Attendance at World Cup events is enormous (Germany, approx. 635,000)
    • Viewership (1 billion viewers of Germany World Cup)

11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports

  • Soccer/Football
11 1 geographic distribution of sports7
11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports
  • Skiing
    • Believed to have originated in Scandinavia
    • Means of transportation and a military skill in Scandinavia
    • Skis approximately 4,500 years old were discovered in Sweden
    • Skiing was introduced to Central Europe at the end of the 16th Century
    • Americans learned skiing either from natives or Scandinavian immigrants in the mid-19th Century
    • Skiing was included in the first Winter Olympics in 1924

Source: B. Jonas and S. Masia, Ski Magazine’s Total Skiing (1987)

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11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports

  • Skiing
    • Recent debate regarding its true place of origin (csmonitor.com, March 15, 2006)
    • Altay Mountains bordering China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, and Russia
    • Skis used to this day for subsistence hunting and transportation
    • Believed that Altaic peoples may have introduced skiing in Scandinavia
    • Also a belief that skiing concept arose independently
    • Skis made of spruce or white pine, wrapped in hairy, horse-shank skin
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Origins of Skiing

11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports

11 1 geographic distribution of sports10
11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports
  • Olympic Games (change over time)
    • First modern Olympic Games held in 1896
      • 241 athletes
      • 14 countries
      • 43 events
      • 9 sports
    • 2004 Olympic Games
      • 10,500 athletes
      • 202 countries
      • 300 events
      • 28 sports
11 1 geographic distribution of sports11
11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports
  • Spatial patterns
    • Economics/Trade (sports equipment manufacturers - Pakistan)
    • Climate plays a role in pattern of sports
      • Colder regions were playing ice hockey earlier
      • Year-round warmer areas playing soccer Development
    • Soccer/Football is now played virtually everywhere
    • Golf is primarily limited to wealthier nations as is skiing
      • Countries gaining wealthier population find golf popularity growing (China)
11 2 changing views of tourism and recreation
11.2 Changing Views of Tourism and Recreation
  • Italy
    • Formerly a religious, political, commercial center
    • Popular tourist centers (Florence, Venice, Rome)
  • United States
    • Parks developed in response to increased urbanization
    • Millenium Park, Chicago, IL
    • Need for recreation/green space
    • Formerly blighted areas redeveloped
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South Africa
    • Apartheid policies implemented in 1948
      • Institutionalization of racial discrimination
      • Government did not develop tourism during apartheid
      • End of apartheid policies in 1994 (first all-race election in 1994)
    • New government saw important role of tourism in economic revival
      • Dramatic increase in tours/lodges, etc. (Tourism up 100% since 1994)
      • From 3.6 million visitors in 1994 to 7.3 million in 2005 (8% of S.A. GDP)
    • South Africa to host the FIFA World Cup in 2010
      • 9 cities will host games and events
      • 10 new venues being constructed for the games
      • Billions of dollars to be injected into local economy

11.2 Changing Views of Tourism and Recreation

11 2 changing views of tourism and recreation14
11.2 Changing Views of Tourism and Recreation
  • China
    • Won bid for 2008 Olympic Games (benefits)
    • International attention
      • China will likely ease restrictions during the Games to appear more “open”
      • Promises have been made regarding freedom of media
    • Promote human rights advocacy and democracy
      • People have increased personal freedom but political freedom nonexistent
    • Negative is government accused of increasing arrests of dissidents
      • Destroying houses without owners’ permission
    • Construction of many new facilities for Olympics and beyond
11 3 human and physical impacts of sport and recreation
11.3 Human and Physical Impacts of Sport and Recreation
  • Germany - 2006 World Cup and healing image from WWII
  • Olympics
    • Physical/Cultural landscapes changed
    • Atmosphere of increased nationalism (national character)
    • Infrastructure, sport venues, lodging, future tourism, international focus
  • United States
    • Continued growth/development of ski resorts and golf resorts
    • Job creation, alteration of physical/human landscape, loss of habitat
  • United Kingdom
    • Hosted the 2007 Tour De France
  • South Africa
    • Heal its image from apartheid; Development of National Parks and Refuges to preserve (character preservation)
11 3 human and physical impacts of sport and recreation16
11.3 Human and Physical Impacts of Sport and Recreation
  • China
    • Leisure time includes dining out (Hong Kong = 1 restaurant/20 people)
    • Increase in paid holidays for workers promotes tourism
    • World’s largest golf course planned
    • Entire country has approximately 30,000 golf club members
    • Government envisions golf courses as new revenue possibility
    • Resort destinations created
11 3 human and physical impacts of sport and recreation17
11.3 Human and Physical Impacts of Sport and Recreation
  • China
    • Hangzhou, China
      • West Lake development completed Jan. 2007
      • 10% growth in GDP/year for 13 successive years
      • 30 million visitors (2 million international) each year
      • 21-block district in a blighted area to be redeveloped for international tourism
      • Canal, manmade canyon, shopping, restaurants
11 3 human and physical impacts of sport and recreation18
11.3 Human and Physical Impacts of Sport and Recreation

Source: Jerde Partnership

Overview of entire West Lake Development

in Hangzhou, China

Architectural canyon and canal attached to West Lake in Hangzhou, China

11 3 human and physical impacts of sport and recreation19
11.3 Human and Physical Impacts of Sport and Recreation
  • Dubai
    • World’s largest indoor ski resort
    • Snow park equivalent to 3 football fields
    • Mountain resort theme
    • Restaurants, shopping, lodging
    • Skiing, snowboarding, tobogganing
    • 30 tons of fresh snow made daily
    • Connected to The Mall of the Emirates
  • Climate as a determining factor
  • Diversified economy
11 4 local impacts of sport and recreation
11.4 Local Impacts of Sport and Recreation
  • Indianapolis, Indiana
    • Urban renewal using sports, recreation, and tourism
      • Change over time - Major sporting venues, Victory Field, NCAA Headquarters, White River Gardens and State Park, Indiana State Museum, Eiteljorg Museum
      • Spatial organization - Recreational opportunities in downtown Canal Walk leading to museums and the NCAA Hall of Champions, and connected to the Indianapolis Zoo
      • Military Park (hosts several festivals per year), IUPUI Campus, and RCA Tennis Center
      • Spatial interaction - Monon Trail (former railway) developed as a recreational corridor stretching 15.5 miles from 10th Street in downtown Indianapolis north to Carmel, Indiana (146th Street).
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11.4 Local Impacts of Sport and Recreation

  • Monon Trail
    • Offers a recreational/spatial link between urban/suburban areas
    • Spatial interaction, alteration of physical landscape
11 4 local impacts of sport and recreation25
11.4 Local Impacts of Sport and Recreation
  • Indianapolis, Indiana
    • $319.5 million Circle Centre, successful urban shopping and entertainment centers
    • $2.7 billion in construction and redevelopment efforts by 2010 (change over time)
    • Major Sports and Convention Venues (Lucas Oil Stadium, new Convention Center)
    • 3,000 hotel rooms connected to Indiana Convention Center via skywalk
    • Planned Market Square District redevelopment
    • Vibrant urban center with lodging, shopping, sports, arts, and other entertainment all within walking distance (spatial organization and interaction)

Source: Downtown Indianapolis, Inc.

11 5 impacts of tourism
11.5 Impacts of Tourism
  • Brazil Tourism
    • Amazon River Basin
    • Rainforest tours (human-environment interactions)
    • “Ecotourism”
    • Lodges, landing strips, fuel in waterways (alteration of physical systems)
    • Greater exposure of native peoples and animals to disease/infection (changes in cultural landscape)
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11.5 Impacts of Tourism

  • Kenya
    • Nearly 1 million visitors to Kenya per year ($500 million)
    • More popular spots: Mombasa, Nairobi, Game Reserves
    • Tourism believed to contribute to preservation of dance/traditions
    • Local population and employees learn foreign languages

Sources: IDRC, Moi University Research, Kenya Tourism

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11.5 Impacts of Tourism

  • Kenya
    • Divide in benefits of tourism
      • Only 2% of revenue at Maasai Mara Reserve goes to local Maasai
      • Remainder goes to lodges, transportation/travel agencies, Govt.
    • Human-Environment Interaction
      • Conversion of traditional grazing land to Park
    • Impacts on wildlife
      • Off-road driving damaging habitat
      • Lodges/restaurants affecting food intake
      • Researchers discovered traces of lead in roadside vegetation
11 5 impacts of tourism29
11.5 Impacts of Tourism
  • Arctic Regions
    • Dramatic increase in tourism during the last 15 years
    • Up to one million tourists each year (Scandinavia, Canada, Greenland, Russia, Alaska)
    • Canadian Arctic and sub-Arctic
      • Use of Tundra Buggies
      • Fuel emissions
      • Disturbance of animals
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11.5 Impacts of Tourism

  • Possible Environmental Impacts of Ecotourism
    • Tourism depends on condition of environment (complex relationship)
    • Destruction or disturbance of wildlife habitat for construction of lodges, infrastructure, etc.
    • Removal of vegetation contributes to increased soil erosion, sedimentation of waterways, increased risk of flooding (physical and human impacts)
    • Water quality risks associated with sewage, fuel for tour operations
    • Localized air quality impacts from exhaust emissions
    • Hunting tours may reduce wildlife populations depended upon by local human population

Source: IUCN, www.iucn.org

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11.5 Impacts of Tourism

  • Infrastructure Improvements
    • Governments offer tax incentives to developers
    • Expensive infrastructure improvements divert money from other social benefits (health care)
  • “All-Inclusive Packages” such as cruise ships
    • Very little local involvement/benefit
  • “Leakage”: Amount of direct income to an area from tourism
    • Majority of income goes to foreign-owned businesses, airlines, hotels, travel/tour operators, and imported food, etc.
    • Thailand example (70% of money spent ended up leaving the country)

Source: UNEP