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Standard 11 Sports, Recreation, and Tourism

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  1. Standard 11 Sports, Recreation, and Tourism

  2. Students will examine the physical and human geographic factors associated with sports, recreation, and tourism along with the local and global consequences of these activities.

  3. 11.1 • Describe the spread of specific sports and/or sporting events from their geographic origins. Analyze the spatial patterns that emerge. [Origins, Change Over Time, Diffusion]

  4. 11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports • Golf (Scotland) • Tennis (Europe) • Lacrosse (Canada – Native Americans) • Skiing (Scandinavia) • Soccer/Football (Europe, Latin America) • Baseball/Basketball (USA) • Olympics (Greece)

  5. 11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports • Soccer/Football • Modern version originated in England around the mid-19th Century • However, there is considerable debate regarding its earlier origins • Several locations claimed as place of origin • Ancient Greeks and Romans played a game with their feet and a ball, observed by Herodotus to be the head of the defeated team’s captain • 3rd Century BC – Soldiers during the Han Dynasty played a game where a ball would be kicked into a small net • Football was played in England as early as the 8th Century, with the “ball” being the head of a defeated Danish Prince • The game became so violent in England that King Edward III tried to abolish the game • The Football Association established in England in 1863 (1 set of rules)

  6. 11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports • Soccer/Football • Early Egyptian ball made of linen from 2500 BC • Greek game called Episkyros, approximately 2000 BC • Romans later changed the name to Harpastum

  7. Diffusion of modern sport • British workmen went to South America to build railroads • Mass emigration from Italy to South America • British troops brought the game to India • American Civil War soldiers played the game to relax • International competition • International competition began in Europe near the turn of the 20th Century • FIFA founded in 1904 • First World Cup in 1930 in Montevideo, Uruguay • 1932 World Cup final was the first to be broadcast on radio • Attendance at World Cup events is enormous (Germany, approx. 635,000) • Viewership (1 billion viewers of Germany World Cup) 11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports • Soccer/Football

  8. 11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports • Skiing • Believed to have originated in Scandinavia • Means of transportation and a military skill in Scandinavia • Skis approximately 4,500 years old were discovered in Sweden • Skiing was introduced to Central Europe at the end of the 16th Century • Americans learned skiing either from natives or Scandinavian immigrants in the mid-19th Century • Skiing was included in the first Winter Olympics in 1924 Source: B. Jonas and S. Masia, Ski Magazine’s Total Skiing (1987)

  9. 11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports • Skiing • Recent debate regarding its true place of origin (csmonitor.com, March 15, 2006) • Altay Mountains bordering China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, and Russia • Skis used to this day for subsistence hunting and transportation • Believed that Altaic peoples may have introduced skiing in Scandinavia • Also a belief that skiing concept arose independently • Skis made of spruce or white pine, wrapped in hairy, horse-shank skin

  10. Origins of Skiing 11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports

  11. 11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports • Olympic Games • First modern Olympic Games held in 1896 • 241 athletes • 14 countries • 43 events • 9 sports • 2004 Olympic Games • 10,500 athletes • 202 countries • 300 events • 28 sports

  12. 11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports • Spatial patterns • Soccer/Football is now played virtually everywhere • Golf is primarily limited to wealthier nations as is skiing • Countries gaining wealthier population find golf popularity growing (China) • Climate plays a role in pattern of sports • Colder regions were playing ice hockey earlier • Year-round warmer areas playing soccer

  13. 11.2 • Analyze the ways in which people’s changing views of places and regions that are appropriate for recreation and tourism reflect cultural changes. [Change Over Time, Spatial Interaction, Cultural Landscape.]

  14. 11.2 Changing Views of Tourism and Recreation • Italy • Formerly a religious, political, commercial center • Becoming tourist centers (Florence, Venice, Rome) • United States • Parks developed in response to increased urbanization • Millenium Park, Chicago, IL

  15. South Africa • Apartheid policies implemented in 1948 • Institutionalization of racial discrimination • Government did not develop tourism during apartheid • End of apartheid policies in 1994 • First all-race election in 1994 • New government saw important role of tourism in economic revival • Dramatic increase in tour operators and lodges, safari tours, etc. • Tourism has increased 100% since 1994 • From 3.6 million visitors in 1994 to 7.3 million in 2005 (8% of S.A. GDP) • Preparing to host World Cup in 2010 (improved infrastructure, airports) • Billions of dollars to be injected into local economy 11.2 Changing Views of Tourism and Recreation

  16. 11.2 Changing Views of Tourism and Recreation • China • Won bid for 2008 Olympic Games • Olympic Games offer potential for political and cultural change • International attention • China will likely ease restrictions during the Games to appear more “open” • Promises have been made regarding freedom of media • Promote human rights advocacy and democracy • People have increased personal freedom but political freedom nonexistent • Negative is government accused of increasing arrests of dissidents • Destroying houses without owners’ permission • Construction of many new facilities for Olympics and beyond

  17. 11.3 • Detect and assess the impact of sport and recreation on the human and physical environments in selected countries. [Change Over Time, Cultural Landscape, National Character]

  18. 11.3 Impact of Sport, Recreation, and Tourism • Olympics • Dramatically alter landscape and character of host cities/nations • Atmosphere of increased nationalism in host country • Improvements in infrastructure, sport venues, lodging, future tourism • International focus • Germany’s pride in 2006 World Cup and healing image from WWII; South Africa with opportunity to heal its image from apartheid • Africa • Development of National Parks and Refuges to preserve landscape and wildlife (character preservation)

  19. 11.3 Impact of Sport, Recreation, and Tourism • China • Leisure time includes dining out (Hong Kong = 1 restaurant/20 people) • Increase in paid holidays for workers promotes tourism • World’s largest golf course planned • Entire country has approximately 30,000 golf club members • Government envisions golf courses as new revenue possibility • Hangzhou, China • West Lake development underway • To be completed by January 2007 • 30 million tourists (2 million are international visitors) each year to area • 21-block district in a blighted area to be redeveloped for tourism • Canal, manmade canyon along canal, shopping, restaurants

  20. 11.3 Impact of Sport, Recreation, and Tourism • China • Hangzhou, China • West Lake development underway • Completed by Jan. 2007 • 30 million tourists (2 million international) each year to area • 21-block district in a blighted area to be redeveloped for tourism • Canal, manmade canyon along canal, shopping, restaurants

  21. 11.3 Impact of Sport, Recreation, and Tourism Overview of entire WestLake Development in Hangzhou, China Source: Jerde Partnership Architectural canyon and canal attached to WestLake in Hanzouh, China

  22. 11.4 • Analyze the changing patterns of space devoted to sports and recreation in your local community and region. [Spatial Interaction, Spatial Organization, Change Over Time]

  23. 11.4 Local Impact • Indianapolis, Indiana • Urban renewal using sports, recreation, and tourism • Major sporting venues, Victory Field, NCAA Headquarters, White River Gardens and State Park, Indiana State Museum, Eiteljorg Museum • Recreational opportunities in downtown Canal Walk leading to museums and the NCAA Hall of Champions, and connected to the Indianapolis Zoo • Military Park (hosts several festivals per year), IUPUI Campus, and RCA Tennis Center • Monon Trail (former railway) developed as a recreational corridor stretching 15.5 miles from 10th Street in downtown Indianapolis north to Carmel, Indiana (146th Street).

  24. 11.4 Local Impact • Monon Trail • Offers a recreational link between urban/suburban areas

  25. 11.4 Local Impact • Indianapolis, Indiana • $319.5 million Circle Centre, successful urban shopping and entertainment centers • $2.7 billion in construction and redevelopment efforts by 2010 • Major Sports and Convention Venues • 3,000 hotel rooms connected to Indiana Convention Center via skywalk • Planned Market Square District redevelopment • Two 29-story buildings housing approximately 400 condos • 100,000 square feet of retail space • Projected completion of 2007 • Vibrant urban center with lodging, shopping, sports, arts, and other entertainment all within walking distance Source: Downtown Indianapolis, Inc.

  26. 11.5 • Analyze the impact of tourism on the physical and human environments of selected world regions. Predict the environmental impact of a continued growth in tourism in these regions. [Human Environment Interactions, Spatial Interaction, Change Over Time, Spatial Variation, Spatial Organization, Physical Systems, Cultural Landscape, Human Livelihoods]

  27. 11.5 Tourism • Brazil Tourism • Amazon River Basin • Rainforest tours • “Ecotourism” • Lodges, landing strips, fuel in waterways • Greater exposure of native peoples and animals to disease/infection

  28. 11.5 Impact of Tourism • Kenya • Nearly 1 million visitors to Kenya per year ($500 million) • More popular spots: Mombasa, Nairobi, Game Reserves • Tourism believed to contribute to preservation of dance/traditions • Local population and employees learn foreign languages Sources: IDRC, Moi University Research, Kenya Tourism

  29. 11.5 Impact of Tourism • Kenya • Research indicates divide in benefits of tourism • Only 2% of revenue at Maasai Mara Reserve goes to local Maasai • Remainder goes to lodges, transportation/travel agencies, Govt. • Conversion of traditional grazing land to Park • Impacts on wildlife • Off-road driving damaging habitat • Lodges/restaurants affecting food intake • Researchers discovered traces of lead in roadside vegetation

  30. 11.5 Impact of Tourism • Possible Environmental Impacts of Ecotourism • Specifically “ecotourism” operations • Destruction or disturbance of wildlife habitat for construction of lodges, infrastructure, etc. • Removal of vegetation contributes to increased soil erosion, sedimentation of waterways, increased risk of flooding • Water quality risks associated with sewage, fuel for tour operations • Localized air quality impacts from exhaust emissions • Hunting tours may reduce wildlife populations depended upon by local human population Source: IUCN, www.iucn.org

  31. 11.5 Tourism • Artic Regions • Dramatic increase in tourism during the last 15 years • Up to one million tourists each year (Scandinavia, Canada, Greenland, Russia, Alaska) • Canadian Arctic • Use of Tundra Buggies • Fuel emissions • Disturbance of animals

  32. 11.5 Impact of Tourism