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Standard 11 Sports, Recreation, and Tourism . Students will examine the physical and human geographic factors associated with sports, recreation, and tourism along with the local and global consequences of these activities. 11.1.

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Students will examine the physical and human geographic factors associated with sports, recreation, and tourism along with the local and global consequences of these activities.
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11.1
  • Describe the spread of specific sports and/or sporting events from their geographic origins. Analyze the spatial patterns that emerge. [Origins, Change Over Time, Diffusion]
11 1 geographic distribution of sports
11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports
  • Golf (Scotland)
  • Tennis (Europe)
  • Lacrosse (Canada – Native Americans)
  • Skiing (Scandinavia)
  • Soccer/Football (Europe, Latin America)
  • Baseball/Basketball (USA)
  • Olympics (Greece)
11 1 geographic distribution of sports1
11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports
  • Soccer/Football
    • Modern version originated in England around the mid-19th Century
    • However, there is considerable debate regarding its earlier origins
    • Several locations claimed as place of origin
    • Ancient Greeks and Romans played a game with their feet and a ball, observed by Herodotus to be the head of the defeated team’s captain
    • 3rd Century BC – Soldiers during the Han Dynasty played a game where a ball would be kicked into a small net
    • Football was played in England as early as the 8th Century, with the “ball” being the head of a defeated Danish Prince
    • The game became so violent in England that King Edward III tried to abolish the game
    • The Football Association established in England in 1863 (1 set of rules)
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11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports

  • Soccer/Football
    • Early Egyptian ball made of linen from 2500 BC
    • Greek game called Episkyros, approximately 2000 BC
    • Romans later changed the name to Harpastum
slide7
Diffusion of modern sport
    • British workmen went to South America to build railroads
    • Mass emigration from Italy to South America
    • British troops brought the game to India
    • American Civil War soldiers played the game to relax
  • International competition
    • International competition began in Europe near the turn of the 20th Century
    • FIFA founded in 1904
    • First World Cup in 1930 in Montevideo, Uruguay
    • 1932 World Cup final was the first to be broadcast on radio
    • Attendance at World Cup events is enormous (Germany, approx. 635,000)
    • Viewership (1 billion viewers of Germany World Cup)

11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports

  • Soccer/Football
11 1 geographic distribution of sports2
11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports
  • Skiing
    • Believed to have originated in Scandinavia
    • Means of transportation and a military skill in Scandinavia
    • Skis approximately 4,500 years old were discovered in Sweden
    • Skiing was introduced to Central Europe at the end of the 16th Century
    • Americans learned skiing either from natives or Scandinavian immigrants in the mid-19th Century
    • Skiing was included in the first Winter Olympics in 1924

Source: B. Jonas and S. Masia, Ski Magazine’s Total Skiing (1987)

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11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports

  • Skiing
    • Recent debate regarding its true place of origin (csmonitor.com, March 15, 2006)
    • Altay Mountains bordering China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, and Russia
    • Skis used to this day for subsistence hunting and transportation
    • Believed that Altaic peoples may have introduced skiing in Scandinavia
    • Also a belief that skiing concept arose independently
    • Skis made of spruce or white pine, wrapped in hairy, horse-shank skin
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Origins of Skiing

11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports

11 1 geographic distribution of sports3
11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports
  • Olympic Games
    • First modern Olympic Games held in 1896
      • 241 athletes
      • 14 countries
      • 43 events
      • 9 sports
    • 2004 Olympic Games
      • 10,500 athletes
      • 202 countries
      • 300 events
      • 28 sports
11 1 geographic distribution of sports4
11.1 Geographic Distribution of Sports
  • Spatial patterns
    • Soccer/Football is now played virtually everywhere
    • Golf is primarily limited to wealthier nations as is skiing
      • Countries gaining wealthier population find golf popularity growing (China)
    • Climate plays a role in pattern of sports
      • Colder regions were playing ice hockey earlier
      • Year-round warmer areas playing soccer
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11.2
  • Analyze the ways in which people’s changing views of places and regions that are appropriate for recreation and tourism reflect cultural changes. [Change Over Time, Spatial Interaction, Cultural Landscape.]
11 2 changing views of tourism and recreation
11.2 Changing Views of Tourism and Recreation
  • Italy
    • Formerly a religious, political, commercial center
    • Becoming tourist centers (Florence, Venice, Rome)
  • United States
    • Parks developed in response to increased urbanization
    • Millenium Park, Chicago, IL
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South Africa
    • Apartheid policies implemented in 1948
      • Institutionalization of racial discrimination
      • Government did not develop tourism during apartheid
    • End of apartheid policies in 1994
      • First all-race election in 1994
    • New government saw important role of tourism in economic revival
      • Dramatic increase in tour operators and lodges, safari tours, etc.
    • Tourism has increased 100% since 1994
      • From 3.6 million visitors in 1994 to 7.3 million in 2005 (8% of S.A. GDP)
      • Preparing to host World Cup in 2010 (improved infrastructure, airports)
      • Billions of dollars to be injected into local economy

11.2 Changing Views of Tourism and Recreation

11 2 changing views of tourism and recreation1
11.2 Changing Views of Tourism and Recreation
  • China
    • Won bid for 2008 Olympic Games
    • Olympic Games offer potential for political and cultural change
    • International attention
      • China will likely ease restrictions during the Games to appear more “open”
      • Promises have been made regarding freedom of media
    • Promote human rights advocacy and democracy
      • People have increased personal freedom but political freedom nonexistent
    • Negative is government accused of increasing arrests of dissidents
      • Destroying houses without owners’ permission
    • Construction of many new facilities for Olympics and beyond
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11.3
  • Detect and assess the impact of sport and recreation on the human and physical environments in selected countries. [Change Over Time, Cultural Landscape, National Character]
11 3 impact of sport recreation and tourism
11.3 Impact of Sport, Recreation, and Tourism
  • Olympics
    • Dramatically alter landscape and character of host cities/nations
    • Atmosphere of increased nationalism in host country
    • Improvements in infrastructure, sport venues, lodging, future tourism
    • International focus
    • Germany’s pride in 2006 World Cup and healing image from WWII; South Africa with opportunity to heal its image from apartheid
  • Africa
    • Development of National Parks and Refuges to preserve landscape and wildlife (character preservation)
11 3 impact of sport recreation and tourism1
11.3 Impact of Sport, Recreation, and Tourism
  • China
    • Leisure time includes dining out (Hong Kong = 1 restaurant/20 people)
    • Increase in paid holidays for workers promotes tourism
    • World’s largest golf course planned
    • Entire country has approximately 30,000 golf club members
    • Government envisions golf courses as new revenue possibility
    • Hangzhou, China
      • West Lake development underway
      • To be completed by January 2007
      • 30 million tourists (2 million are international visitors) each year to area
      • 21-block district in a blighted area to be redeveloped for tourism
      • Canal, manmade canyon along canal, shopping, restaurants
11 3 impact of sport recreation and tourism2
11.3 Impact of Sport, Recreation, and Tourism
  • China
    • Hangzhou, China
      • West Lake development underway
      • Completed by Jan. 2007
      • 30 million tourists (2 million international) each year to area
      • 21-block district in a blighted area to be redeveloped for tourism
      • Canal, manmade canyon along canal, shopping, restaurants
11 3 impact of sport recreation and tourism3
11.3 Impact of Sport, Recreation, and Tourism

Overview of entire WestLake Development

in Hangzhou, China

Source: Jerde Partnership

Architectural canyon and canal attached to WestLake in Hanzouh, China

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11.4
  • Analyze the changing patterns of space devoted to sports and recreation in your local community and region. [Spatial Interaction, Spatial Organization, Change Over Time]
11 4 local impact
11.4 Local Impact
  • Indianapolis, Indiana
    • Urban renewal using sports, recreation, and tourism
      • Major sporting venues, Victory Field, NCAA Headquarters, White River Gardens and State Park, Indiana State Museum, Eiteljorg Museum
      • Recreational opportunities in downtown Canal Walk leading to museums and the NCAA Hall of Champions, and connected to the Indianapolis Zoo
      • Military Park (hosts several festivals per year), IUPUI Campus, and RCA Tennis Center
      • Monon Trail (former railway) developed as a recreational corridor stretching 15.5 miles from 10th Street in downtown Indianapolis north to Carmel, Indiana (146th Street).
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11.4 Local Impact

  • Monon Trail
    • Offers a recreational link between urban/suburban areas
11 4 local impact1
11.4 Local Impact
  • Indianapolis, Indiana
    • $319.5 million Circle Centre, successful urban shopping and entertainment centers
    • $2.7 billion in construction and redevelopment efforts by 2010
    • Major Sports and Convention Venues
    • 3,000 hotel rooms connected to Indiana Convention Center via skywalk
    • Planned Market Square District redevelopment
      • Two 29-story buildings housing approximately 400 condos
      • 100,000 square feet of retail space
      • Projected completion of 2007
    • Vibrant urban center with lodging, shopping, sports, arts, and other entertainment all within walking distance

Source: Downtown Indianapolis, Inc.

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11.5
  • Analyze the impact of tourism on the physical and human environments of selected world regions. Predict the environmental impact of a continued growth in tourism in these regions. [Human Environment Interactions, Spatial Interaction, Change Over Time, Spatial Variation, Spatial Organization, Physical Systems, Cultural Landscape, Human Livelihoods]
11 5 tourism
11.5 Tourism
  • Brazil Tourism
    • Amazon River Basin
    • Rainforest tours
    • “Ecotourism”
    • Lodges, landing strips, fuel in waterways
    • Greater exposure of native peoples and animals to disease/infection
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11.5 Impact of Tourism

  • Kenya
    • Nearly 1 million visitors to Kenya per year ($500 million)
    • More popular spots: Mombasa, Nairobi, Game Reserves
    • Tourism believed to contribute to preservation of dance/traditions
    • Local population and employees learn foreign languages

Sources: IDRC, Moi University Research, Kenya Tourism

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11.5 Impact of Tourism

  • Kenya
    • Research indicates divide in benefits of tourism
      • Only 2% of revenue at Maasai Mara Reserve goes to local Maasai
      • Remainder goes to lodges, transportation/travel agencies, Govt.
    • Conversion of traditional grazing land to Park
    • Impacts on wildlife
      • Off-road driving damaging habitat
      • Lodges/restaurants affecting food intake
      • Researchers discovered traces of lead in roadside vegetation
slide30

11.5 Impact of Tourism

  • Possible Environmental Impacts of Ecotourism
    • Specifically “ecotourism” operations
    • Destruction or disturbance of wildlife habitat for construction of lodges, infrastructure, etc.
    • Removal of vegetation contributes to increased soil erosion, sedimentation of waterways, increased risk of flooding
    • Water quality risks associated with sewage, fuel for tour operations
    • Localized air quality impacts from exhaust emissions
    • Hunting tours may reduce wildlife populations depended upon by local human population

Source: IUCN, www.iucn.org

11 5 tourism1
11.5 Tourism
  • Artic Regions
    • Dramatic increase in tourism during the last 15 years
    • Up to one million tourists each year (Scandinavia, Canada, Greenland, Russia, Alaska)
    • Canadian Arctic
      • Use of Tundra Buggies
      • Fuel emissions
      • Disturbance of animals