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LPG as an Automotive Fuel

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  1. LPG as an Automotive Fuel Shell AutoGas

  2. Auto LPG or Liquefied Petroleum Gas is a generic name for mixtures of hydrocarbons (mainly propane and butane) which exists as vapor under ambient conditions and can be changed into liquid state by applying moderate pressures. Energy content similar to gasoline Inherently clean burning characteristics What is Auto LPG ?

  3. Environmental Benefits • Lower photo-chemical smog “ozone” forming potential (which causes cancer and respiratory problems e.g. asthma, bronchitis) • Lower Greenhouse gas emissions (primarily Carbon dioxide, Methane and Nitrogen oxide) (typically 10-20%) which affect climatic change • Less urban pollution in • “air toxics” containing carcinogens and compounds that affect reproductive and neurological systems • “fine particulates” vs diesel buses and trucks (which causes cancer) • insignificant levels of sulphur dioxide, the main cause of acid rain

  4. Pollution Effects

  5. Comparative Environmental Impact (Source : LPG as an Automotive Fuel. Anyon Report. Australia Aug 1998)

  6. Particulate Emissions (regulated) (Source : LPG as an Automotive Fuel. Anyon Report. Australia Aug 1998)

  7. Unregulated Pollutants • Principally comprise Air Toxics from motor vehicles • Fine particulate matter in motor vehicle exhaust absorb toxic compounds through mixing in the exhaust stream & carrying them into lungs • US EPA estimates that mobile (car, truck, bus) sources of air toxics account for half of all cancers attributed to outdoor sources of air toxics • Some Illnesses caused by exposure: • Delayed pulmonary edema, death by respiratory failure, irritation to the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidney damage, birth defects during pregnancy, delayed bone formation, bone marrow damage, and decrease in red blood cells leading to anemia.

  8. Emissions of 1,3-Butadiene mg/kw-h (Source : LPG as an Automotive Fuel. Anyon Report. Australia Aug 1998)

  9. Emissions of Acetaldehyde mg/kw-h (Source : LPG as an Automotive Fuel. Anyon Report. Australia Aug 1998)

  10. Emissions of Formaldehyde (Source : LPG as an Automotive Fuel. Anyon Report. Australia Aug 1998)

  11. Emissions of Benzene (unregulated) mg/kw-h (Source : LPG as an Automotive Fuel. Anyon Report. Australia Aug 1998)

  12. Safety Benefits of Autogas • Carbon steel construction • 20 times more puncture resistant than a typical gasoline tank. • Shut off device when the tank reaches 80% of its liquid capacity. • Non-toxic • Leaks are easily detected because of odorant • Installed safety devices and shut-off valves that function automatically when the fuel line ruptures. • No possibility of theft.

  13. Safety Benefits of Autogas LPG cut off in accident Crash tested LPG tanks Tank venting Excess flow valve on tank Full crash testing If LPG runs out system switches to petrol

  14. Auto LPG Manufacturers • Volvo • Nissan • Ford • Renault • Vauxhall • General Motors LPG Efficiency Index : vs Mogas ~ ( 15-25 ) % , vs Diesel ~ ( 70-100 ) %

  15. Reduced wear during cold starting (Petrol engines need fuel enrichment for cold starting. Excess fuel accumulates on the cylinder wall “washing” away oil and thereby accelerating wear) Extended engine life due to absence of carbon deposits Drivability similar to gasoline w/ negligible effect on acceleration and top speed Reduced soot formation, reduced abrasion & chemical degradation of the oil Higher octane number No annoying odor Auto LPG Material Benefits

  16. Price Comparison ULG vs LPG 2000 to 2002 Peso per liter 21 Unleaded 18 15 12 LPG 9 6 3 ULG / LPG Delta = 26% ave. 0 Jul-00 Jun-01 Jul-01 Jun-00 Oct-00 Oct-01 Jan-00 Jan-01 Jan-02 Apr-00 Apr-01 Mar-00 Mar-01 Mar-02 Aug-01 Aug-00 Nov-01 Nov-00 Feb-00 May-00 Dec-00 Dec-01 Feb-02 May-01 Feb-01 Sep-00 Sep-01

  17. Auto LPG Material Benefits 200 194 Kms. On Autogas 150 167 kms. On Unleaded 100 Average distance a car will travel on P300 of fuel (2002)

  18. Auto LPG Financial Benefits Gasoline (kms.) LPG (kms.) PESO Savings (Php per unit/mo.) Maintenance Items Spark Plug Replacement 18,000 75,000 60.38 Oil Change 10,000 20,000-30,000 104.00 Oil Filter 10,000 20,000-30,000 32.5 Engine Overhaul 200,000 400,000 162.50 Additional Costs Filter Kit na 110,000 62.50 Net Maintenance Savings 296.88

  19. Auto LPG Financial Benefits Cebu Case Unleaded Gasoline 21.24 Autogas Distance per day 16.32 250 kms Delta 30% Days in a month 26 days Petrol Consumption 11.00 ltrs/100 kms Autogas Consumption 12.65 ltrs./100 kms. Fuel W/ Maintenance 967.95 1,264.83 Monthly Savings per car 11,615.43 15,177.97 Annual Savings per car 18,000.00 Conversion Kit Cost 18,000.00 1.55 Payback in years 1.19 1 Year 6 mos 1 Year 2 mos

  20. Auto LPG Financial Benefits Without tax Unleaded Gasoline 21.24 Autogas Distance per day 14.64 250 kms Delta Days in a month 45.02% 26 days Petrol Consumption 11.00 ltrs/100 kms Autogas Consumption 12.65 ltrs./100 kms. Fuel W/ Maintenance 2,346.87 2,643.74 Monthly Savings per car 28,162.39 31,724.32 Annual Savings per car 18,000.00 Conversion Kit Cost 18,000.00 0.64 Payback in years 0.57 7 mos 6 mos

  21. Fuel Price Comparative Analysis + 8% Philippines • Updated 2002 figures + 30% lpg +41%% diesel Greece +72%% uld +8% % NZ +79% +61%% +104%% Italy - 17 % Sri Lanka +126 % + 118% Turkey +197% + 151 % Australia + 148 % + 212 % + 412 % HK 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 LPG Efficiency Index : vs Mogas ~ ( 15-25 ) % , vs Diesel ~ ( 70-100 ) %

  22. Performance / Track Record • Through 3rd generation on vehicle fuel injection systems LPG performance can match or better conventional fuels • No sluggishness or reduction in power with cold starts as for petrol & diesel • Higher octane (e.g. typically ULG has 92, propane 104) leads to higher engine power output. • Higher octane also gives smoother combustion. No additives required to improve performance • Proven technology & track record and experience as a transport fuel e.g. >40 years in Netherlands & Italy

  23. Norway Finland Sweden Denmark Holland Ireland UK Germany Poland Belgium Czech France Romania Hungary Bulgaria Italy Spain Portugal Greece Russia Canada S Korea USA Turkey Tunisia China Japan Iran Algeria Mexico India Hong Kong Thailand Malaysia Sri Lanka Paraguay Australia South Africa New Zealand Auto LPG Use Used in > 40 countries Source: 1999 WLGPA Published Autogas Statistics

  24. Fuel Comparative Analysis Gasoline LPG CNG Vehicle Range 100% 74% 25% Weight of Fuel and Tank (kg) 70 90 288 Fuel Volume (liters) 75 102 302 Storing Pressure (psig) 120 3,000 Refuelling Time (mins) 10 3 Refilling Site Investment (Php) 1.5M 5M Equipment Tank, Pump, Dispenser Tank, Pump, Dispenser Supply pipeline access, high pressure compressor, dispenser LPG has a lot of advantages over CNG Source : Automotive LPGas Report by the World LPGas Assoc. 1998

  25. Technology proven and available conversion kits available for OEM and secondary market Why Auto LPG? • LPG supply infrastructure in place • more than 150 supply points natiowide • excess storage capacity and long on supply • fuel supply infrastructure can readily support AutoLPG

  26. Why Auto Gas? LPG major terminals & filling plants>150 sites nationwide • Shell • Petron • Caltex • Pryce • Liquigaz • Petronas • Total Gas • Nation LA UNION Petron : 700 Shell : 900 AROUND Metro Manila: Shell Pandacan : 2000 Petron Pasig : 760 Caltex Pasig : 540 Petron Cavite : 1120 BATAAN Petron : 3,160 Liquigaz : 12,500 BICOL Petron : 390 LEYTE ISLAND Petron : 240 Pryce : 900 Shell : 500 SO. LUZON COAST Petron : 3,160 Caltex : 3,160 SGE : 45,000 (w/ 15% Total) Nation : 600 +1000 this yr. CEBU Petron : 1,350 Shell : 380 (Pryce +900 by 2001) PANAY ISLANDS Shell : 700 Petron : 260 Pryce : 900 NORTH MINDANAO Pryce Balingasag : 2,000 Shell Villanueva : 300+1,000 Petron : 640 Petronas Iligan : 2,000 PALAWAN Petron : 190 ZAMBOANGA Petron : 190 Pryce : 500 NEGROS ISLAND Shell : 800 Petron : 280 Pryce : 900 GEN. SANTOS Petron : 320 DAVAO Shell : 580+500 Petron : 430 Pryce : 2,500

  27. Conversion Kit Diagram

  28. Conversion Kit Diagram - EFI

  29. Why Auto LPG?

  30. Largest Auto LPG Markets - Vehicles source : World LPGas Assoc. Report 1998

  31. Largest Auto LPG Markets - Gas source : World LPGas Assoc. Report 1998

  32. Other Case Studies Hongkong • 500,000 vehicles • 18,000 taxis, diesel powered and SAR Government legislates all taxis to convert to Auto LPG by 2006 • 2001 SAR Government initiating Auto LPG trials on buses and minibuses Australia • 20 million people, 10 million vehicles • 4-5% vehicles on autogas (= 0.5mn) • In 1999 worth 1.2mn tonnes or 2000 mn litres • 3,300 Autogas filling sites • 97% all taxis already on autogas

  33. Other Case Studies Australia Auto LPG Volume Annual consump. x 1000 tonnes (Source : LPG as an Automotive Fuel. Anyon Report. Australia Aug 1998)

  34. Removal of P1.63/liter autogas tax Zero or low duty on conversion kits Government Lobbying = Lower Auto LPG pump prices/ lower conversion invesment = Faster Conversion Payback = More Conversions and cleaner air

  35. Added Services • Mechanic/ car-care short training program • Occupational and Health Hazards training seminar • Product Knowledge, handling and safety seminar

  36. Government Lobbying • Some Initiatives: • Tricycle Conversion Program Initiated by Clean Air Manila • Autogas for LPG fleets initiated by Shell • Conversion of buses and jeepneys to Autogas instead of rebuilding • Norkis Autogas program • Baguio project to convert Cars to Autogas • Approaching OEM manufacturers (Nissan, Toyota)

  37. Liquified Petroleum Gas as an Automotive Fuel- An Environmental and Technical Perspective. The Peter Anyon Report, Australia, August 1998 Automotive LPGas, Today’s Fuel for a Cleaner Tomorrow, World LPGas Association, France, 1998 Automotive LPG- Today’s Fuel For a Cleaner Tomorrow, World LPG Forum, France, 1995 Auto LPG: Engine & Equipment Developments. Presentation by Shell International, 23 May 1995 Hong Kong Information Sources Useful Websites • www.alpga.asn.au • www.autogas.co.uk • www.autogaschallenge.com.au