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LPG as an Automotive Fuel Shell AutoGas Auto LPG or Liquefied Petroleum Gas is a generic name for mixtures of hydrocarbons (mainly propane and butane) which exists as vapor under ambient conditions and can be changed into liquid state by applying moderate pressures.

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slide1

LPG

as an

Automotive Fuel

Shell

AutoGas

what is auto lpg
Auto LPG or Liquefied Petroleum Gas is a generic name for mixtures of hydrocarbons (mainly propane and butane) which exists as vapor under ambient conditions and can be changed into liquid state by applying moderate pressures.

Energy content similar to gasoline

Inherently clean burning characteristics

What is Auto LPG ?
slide3

Environmental Benefits

  • Lower photo-chemical smog “ozone” forming potential (which causes cancer and respiratory problems e.g. asthma, bronchitis)
  • Lower Greenhouse gas emissions (primarily Carbon dioxide, Methane and Nitrogen oxide) (typically 10-20%) which affect climatic change
  • Less urban pollution in
    • “air toxics” containing carcinogens and compounds that affect reproductive and neurological systems
    • “fine particulates” vs diesel buses and trucks (which causes cancer)
    • insignificant levels of sulphur dioxide, the main cause of acid rain
slide5

Comparative Environmental Impact

(Source : LPG as an Automotive Fuel. Anyon Report. Australia Aug 1998)

slide6

Particulate Emissions (regulated)

(Source : LPG as an Automotive Fuel. Anyon Report. Australia Aug 1998)

slide7

Unregulated Pollutants

  • Principally comprise Air Toxics from motor vehicles
  • Fine particulate matter in motor vehicle exhaust absorb toxic compounds through mixing in the exhaust stream & carrying them into lungs
  • US EPA estimates that mobile (car, truck, bus) sources of air toxics account for half of all cancers attributed to outdoor sources of air toxics
  • Some Illnesses caused by exposure:
  • Delayed pulmonary edema, death by respiratory failure, irritation to the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidney damage, birth defects during pregnancy, delayed bone formation, bone marrow damage, and decrease in red blood cells leading to anemia.
slide8

Emissions of 1,3-Butadiene

mg/kw-h

(Source : LPG as an Automotive Fuel. Anyon Report. Australia Aug 1998)

slide9

Emissions of Acetaldehyde

mg/kw-h

(Source : LPG as an Automotive Fuel. Anyon Report. Australia Aug 1998)

slide10

Emissions of Formaldehyde

(Source : LPG as an Automotive Fuel. Anyon Report. Australia Aug 1998)

slide11

Emissions of Benzene (unregulated)

mg/kw-h

(Source : LPG as an Automotive Fuel. Anyon Report. Australia Aug 1998)

slide12

Safety Benefits of Autogas

  • Carbon steel construction
  • 20 times more puncture resistant than a typical gasoline tank.
  • Shut off device when the tank reaches 80% of its liquid capacity.
  • Non-toxic
  • Leaks are easily detected because of odorant
  • Installed safety devices and shut-off valves that function automatically when the fuel line ruptures.
  • No possibility of theft.
slide13

Safety Benefits of Autogas

LPG cut off in accident

Crash tested LPG tanks

Tank venting

Excess flow valve on tank

Full crash testing

If LPG runs out system switches to petrol

slide14

Auto LPG Manufacturers

  • Volvo
  • Nissan
  • Ford
  • Renault
  • Vauxhall
  • General Motors

LPG Efficiency Index : vs Mogas ~ ( 15-25 ) % , vs Diesel ~ ( 70-100 ) %

auto lpg material benefits
Reduced wear during cold starting (Petrol engines need fuel enrichment for cold starting. Excess fuel accumulates on the cylinder wall “washing” away oil and thereby accelerating wear)

Extended engine life due to absence of carbon deposits

Drivability similar to gasoline w/ negligible effect on acceleration and top speed

Reduced soot formation, reduced abrasion & chemical degradation of the oil

Higher octane number

No annoying odor

Auto LPG Material Benefits
slide16

Price Comparison

ULG vs LPG 2000 to 2002

Peso per liter

21

Unleaded

18

15

12

LPG

9

6

3

ULG / LPG Delta = 26% ave.

0

Jul-00

Jun-01

Jul-01

Jun-00

Oct-00

Oct-01

Jan-00

Jan-01

Jan-02

Apr-00

Apr-01

Mar-00

Mar-01

Mar-02

Aug-01

Aug-00

Nov-01

Nov-00

Feb-00

May-00

Dec-00

Dec-01

Feb-02

May-01

Feb-01

Sep-00

Sep-01

slide17

Auto LPG Material Benefits

200

194 Kms. On Autogas

150

167 kms. On Unleaded

100

Average distance a car will travel on P300 of fuel (2002)

slide18

Auto LPG Financial Benefits

Gasoline

(kms.)

LPG

(kms.)

PESO Savings

(Php per unit/mo.)

Maintenance Items

Spark Plug Replacement

18,000

75,000

60.38

Oil Change

10,000

20,000-30,000

104.00

Oil Filter

10,000

20,000-30,000

32.5

Engine Overhaul

200,000

400,000

162.50

Additional Costs

Filter Kit

na

110,000

62.50

Net Maintenance Savings

296.88

slide19

Auto LPG Financial Benefits

Cebu Case

Unleaded Gasoline

21.24

Autogas

Distance per day

16.32

250 kms

Delta

30%

Days in a month

26 days

Petrol Consumption

11.00 ltrs/100 kms

Autogas Consumption

12.65 ltrs./100 kms.

Fuel

W/ Maintenance

967.95

1,264.83

Monthly Savings per car

11,615.43

15,177.97

Annual Savings per car

18,000.00

Conversion Kit Cost

18,000.00

1.55

Payback in years

1.19

1 Year 6 mos

1 Year 2 mos

slide20

Auto LPG Financial Benefits

Without tax

Unleaded Gasoline

21.24

Autogas

Distance per day

14.64

250 kms

Delta

Days in a month

45.02%

26 days

Petrol Consumption

11.00 ltrs/100 kms

Autogas Consumption

12.65 ltrs./100 kms.

Fuel

W/ Maintenance

2,346.87

2,643.74

Monthly Savings per car

28,162.39

31,724.32

Annual Savings per car

18,000.00

Conversion Kit Cost

18,000.00

0.64

Payback in years

0.57

7 mos

6 mos

slide21

Fuel Price Comparative Analysis

+ 8%

Philippines

  • Updated 2002 figures

+ 30%

lpg

+41%%

diesel

Greece

+72%%

uld

+8% %

NZ

+79%

+61%%

+104%%

Italy

- 17 %

Sri Lanka

+126 %

+ 118%

Turkey

+197%

+ 151 %

Australia

+ 148 %

+ 212 %

+ 412 %

HK

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

1.6

LPG Efficiency Index : vs Mogas ~ ( 15-25 ) % , vs Diesel ~ ( 70-100 ) %

slide22

Performance / Track Record

  • Through 3rd generation on vehicle fuel injection systems LPG performance can match or better conventional fuels
  • No sluggishness or reduction in power with cold starts as for petrol & diesel
  • Higher octane (e.g. typically ULG has 92, propane 104) leads to higher engine power output.
  • Higher octane also gives smoother combustion. No additives required to improve performance
  • Proven technology & track record and experience as a transport fuel e.g. >40 years in Netherlands & Italy
slide23

Norway

Finland

Sweden

Denmark

Holland

Ireland

UK

Germany

Poland

Belgium

Czech

France

Romania

Hungary

Bulgaria

Italy

Spain

Portugal

Greece

Russia

Canada

S Korea

USA

Turkey

Tunisia

China

Japan

Iran

Algeria

Mexico

India

Hong Kong

Thailand

Malaysia

Sri Lanka

Paraguay

Australia

South Africa

New Zealand

Auto LPG Use

Used in > 40 countries

Source: 1999 WLGPA Published Autogas Statistics

slide24

Fuel Comparative Analysis

Gasoline

LPG

CNG

Vehicle Range

100%

74%

25%

Weight of Fuel and Tank (kg)

70

90

288

Fuel Volume (liters)

75

102

302

Storing Pressure (psig)

120

3,000

Refuelling Time (mins)

10

3

Refilling Site Investment (Php)

1.5M

5M

Equipment

Tank, Pump,

Dispenser

Tank, Pump,

Dispenser

Supply pipeline access, high pressure compressor, dispenser

LPG has a lot of advantages over CNG

Source : Automotive LPGas Report by the World LPGas Assoc. 1998

slide25
Technology proven and available

conversion kits available for OEM and secondary market

Why Auto LPG?

  • LPG supply infrastructure in place
    • more than 150 supply points natiowide
    • excess storage capacity and long on supply
    • fuel supply infrastructure can readily support AutoLPG
lpg major terminals filling plants 150 sites nationwide

Why Auto Gas?

LPG major terminals & filling plants>150 sites nationwide
  • Shell
  • Petron
  • Caltex
  • Pryce
  • Liquigaz
  • Petronas
  • Total Gas
  • Nation

LA UNION

Petron : 700

Shell : 900

AROUND Metro Manila:

Shell Pandacan : 2000

Petron Pasig : 760

Caltex Pasig : 540

Petron Cavite : 1120

BATAAN

Petron : 3,160

Liquigaz : 12,500

BICOL

Petron : 390

LEYTE ISLAND

Petron : 240

Pryce : 900

Shell : 500

SO. LUZON COAST

Petron : 3,160

Caltex : 3,160

SGE : 45,000 (w/ 15% Total)

Nation : 600 +1000 this yr.

CEBU

Petron : 1,350

Shell : 380

(Pryce +900 by 2001)

PANAY ISLANDS

Shell : 700

Petron : 260

Pryce : 900

NORTH MINDANAO

Pryce Balingasag : 2,000

Shell Villanueva : 300+1,000

Petron : 640

Petronas Iligan : 2,000

PALAWAN

Petron : 190

ZAMBOANGA

Petron : 190

Pryce : 500

NEGROS ISLAND

Shell : 800

Petron : 280

Pryce : 900

GEN. SANTOS

Petron : 320

DAVAO

Shell : 580+500

Petron : 430

Pryce : 2,500

slide30

Largest Auto LPG Markets - Vehicles

source : World LPGas Assoc. Report 1998

slide31

Largest Auto LPG Markets - Gas

source : World LPGas Assoc. Report 1998

slide32

Other Case Studies

Hongkong

  • 500,000 vehicles
  • 18,000 taxis, diesel powered and SAR Government legislates all taxis to convert to Auto LPG by 2006
  • 2001 SAR Government initiating Auto LPG trials on buses and minibuses

Australia

  • 20 million people, 10 million vehicles
  • 4-5% vehicles on autogas (= 0.5mn)
  • In 1999 worth 1.2mn tonnes or 2000 mn litres
  • 3,300 Autogas filling sites
  • 97% all taxis already on autogas
slide33

Other Case Studies

Australia Auto LPG Volume

Annual

consump.

x 1000 tonnes

(Source : LPG as an Automotive Fuel. Anyon Report. Australia Aug 1998)

slide34
Removal of P1.63/liter autogas tax

Zero or low duty on conversion kits

Government Lobbying

= Lower Auto LPG pump prices/ lower conversion

invesment

= Faster Conversion Payback

= More Conversions and cleaner air

slide35

Added Services

  • Mechanic/ car-care short

training program

  • Occupational and Health Hazards training seminar
  • Product Knowledge, handling and safety seminar
slide36

Government Lobbying

  • Some Initiatives:
  • Tricycle Conversion Program Initiated by Clean Air Manila
  • Autogas for LPG fleets initiated by Shell
  • Conversion of buses and jeepneys to Autogas instead of rebuilding
  • Norkis Autogas program
  • Baguio project to convert Cars to Autogas
  • Approaching OEM manufacturers (Nissan, Toyota)
slide37
Liquified Petroleum Gas as an Automotive Fuel- An Environmental and Technical Perspective. The Peter Anyon Report, Australia, August 1998

Automotive LPGas, Today’s Fuel for a Cleaner Tomorrow, World LPGas Association, France, 1998

Automotive LPG- Today’s Fuel For a Cleaner Tomorrow, World LPG Forum, France, 1995

Auto LPG: Engine & Equipment Developments. Presentation by Shell International, 23 May 1995 Hong Kong

Information Sources

Useful Websites

  • www.alpga.asn.au
  • www.autogas.co.uk
  • www.autogaschallenge.com.au