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Chapter 2. Problem Solving. Outline and Objective. Program Development Cycle Programming Tools. Programming Languages:. Machine Language Assembly Language High level Language . Machine Language. The fundamental language of the computer ’ s processor, also called Low Level Language .

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chapter 2

Chapter 2

Problem Solving

Chapter 2- Visual Basic Schneider

outline and objective

Outline and Objective

Program Development Cycle

Programming Tools

Chapter 2- Visual Basic Schneider

programming languages
Programming Languages:
  • Machine Language
  • Assembly Language
  • High level Language

Chapter 2- Visual Basic Schneider

machine language
Machine Language
  • The fundamental language of the computer’s processor, also called Low Level Language.
  • All programs are converted into machine language before they can be executed.
  • Consists of combination of 0’s and 1’s that represent high and low electrical voltage.

Chapter 2- Visual Basic Schneider

assembly language
Assembly Language
  • A low level language that is similar to machine language.
  • Uses symbolic operation code to represent the machine operation code.

Chapter 2- Visual Basic Schneider

high level language
High Level Language
  • Computer (programming) languages that are easier to learn.
  • Uses English like statements.
  • Examples are C ++, Visual Basic, Pascal, Fortran and …....

Chapter 2- Visual Basic Schneider

program development cycle
Program Development Cycle:

1. Analyze: Define the problem

2. Design: Plan the solution to the problem

3. Choose the Interface: Select the objects

Chapter 2- Visual Basic Schneider

program development cycle8
Program Development Cycle:

4. Code: Translate the algorithm into a programming language.

5. Debug and Test: Locate and remove any errors in the program.

6. Complete the Documentation: Organize all the materials that describe the program.

Chapter 2- Visual Basic Schneider

programming tools
Programming Tools:
  • Flowchart
  • Pseudocode
  • Hierarchy Chart (Structure chart)

Chapter 2- Visual Basic Schneider

what is a flowchart
What is a flowchart?
  • Logic diagram to describe each step that the program must perform to arrive at the solution.
  • A popular logic tool used for showing an algorithm in graphics form.

Chapter 2- Visual Basic Schneider

continue flowchart
Continue flowchart
  • Programmer prepares flowchart before coding.
  • Most common flowchart symbols are:

Chapter 2- Visual Basic Schneider

purpose of flowcharting
Purpose of Flowcharting:
  • An aid in developing the logic of a program.
  • Verification that all possible conditions have been considered in a program.
  • Provides means of communication with others about the program.
  • A guide in coding the program.
  • Documentation for the program.

Chapter 2- Visual Basic Schneider

example of flowchart
Example of Flowchart:

Start

Initialize Counter =1

and sum to 0

Are there more data

No

Yes

Get next grade

Increment counter

Add grade to sum

Chapter 2- Visual Basic Schneider

desk checking
Desk Checking
  • The process of testing the flowchart with different data as input, and checking the output.
  • The test data should include nonstandard data as well as typical data.

Chapter 2- Visual Basic Schneider

what is a pseudocode
What is a Pseudocode?
  • A program design technique that uses English words.
  • Has no formal syntactical rules.

Chapter 2- Visual Basic Schneider

example of pseudocode
Example of Pseudocode:
  • Determine the average grade of a class:

Do while there are more data

Get the next Grade

Add the Grade to the Sum

Increment the Counter

Loop

Compute average = Sum / Counter

Display average

Chapter 2- Visual Basic Schneider

what is a hierarchy chart
What is a Hierarchy Chart?
  • Shows the overall program’s structure.
  • Describes what each part, or module, of the program does.
  • Also how each module relates to other modules in the program.

Chapter 2- Visual Basic Schneider

example of hierarchy chart
Example of Hierarchy Chart:

Class average

Program

Get

Grade

Compute

Sum

Calculate

Average

Display

Average

Chapter 2- Visual Basic Schneider