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HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION. Stringing Beans in Baltimore. Shucking Oysters in Florida. Immigrants in a tenement. The Population of The U.S. Unless you are a Native American, everyone has immigrants as their ancestors.

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the population of the u s
The Population of The U.S

Unless you are a Native American, everyone has immigrants as their ancestors.

Give me your tired, your poor,Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,I lift my lamp beside the golden door!

immigration is a choice
Immigration is a CHOICE
  • In most cases, immigrants make a conscious choice to UPROOT themselves and families from their current lives
  • “Immigrate or die”
    • Literally DIE in some cases (Irish Potato Famine, African slavery)
  • Where did the immigrants come from?
  • When did they arrive?
  • Why did they leave their home countries?
  • Where did they settle?
  • Where did they work?
  • What aspects of their culture did they bring with them?
  • What impact did immigrant cultural traditions have on the United States?
  • Due to potato rot which began in 1845, the potato crop in Ireland began to fail.
  • From 1845 to 1850 there were famine conditions in Ireland.
  • More than one million people died of starvation.
  • One-fourth of the Irish population moved to the United States.
  • Because of improved farming methods such as crop rotation-and therefore greater abundance of food-the population of Europe doubled between 1750 and 1850.
  • These improvements reduced the need for farm workers → many peasants were forced off land that they had lived on for generations
  • The passage to the United States in sailing vessels took three months, on the average, at the beginning of the 1800s.
  • The passage in steamships (which began to be used in the mid-nineteenth century) took ten days.
  • The Russian government began to carry out pogroms (organized attacks) against the Jews of eastern Europe.
  • A Norwegian worker could earn up to 4-5 dollars a day in the United States.
  • This was more than triple the wage that the same person could have earned in Norway at that time
  • The U.S. Congress passed the Contract Labour Law in 1864
  • Employers could make contracts with workers in other countries and many employers lent money to foreign workers to pay for their transportation to the United States.
  • After the workers arrived, they were required to pay the money back out of their wages.
three great waves of immigration
Three great waves of immigration
  • 1815-1860:
    • 5 million immigrants - mainly English, Irish, Germanic, Scandinavian, and others from northwestern Europe
  • 1865-1890:
    • 10 million immigrants - again mainly from northwestern Europe
  • 1890-1914:
    • 15 million immigrants – mainly from Eastern Europe
reasons for immigration
Reasons for immigration
  • There are two types of motivation for immigration
  • PUSH factors (reasons to leave home country)
  • PULL factors (reasons for settling in USA)
push factors for immigration
PUSH FACTORS for immigration
  • Scientific farming/change in economy
  • Lack of political freedom in homeland
  • Religious Intolerance in homeland
  • Political Refugees fear for their lives
  • Starvation/lack of options
  • Forced Immigration (Slavery)
pull factors for immigration
PULL FACTORS for immigration
  • Land plentiful, and fairly cheap.
  • Jobs were abundant, wages high. (comparitivly)
  • Industry and urbanization → increase
  • Notion that in America, the streets were, "paved with gold,"
  • Religious and political freedom.
reasons for immigration 1890 1914
Reasons for immigration 1890-1914
  • Jews came for religious freedom
  • Italians and Asians came for Work
  • Russians came to escape persecution
  • America had jobs
  • America had religious freedom
  • America was hyped up in many countries as "Land of Opportunity"
who were the immigrants 1890 1914
Who were the immigrants? 1890 - 1914

Look at the chart on page 489 for differences

between OLD and NEW immigrants

eastern southern europe immigrants
Eastern/Southern Europe Immigrants
  • Immigrants from Southeastern Europe blamed for increasing problems
  • 1880 – 1920 →New York grew by 300%, Chicago → 400%, L.A→1000%
  • These newcomers were often described by what they were not:
    • Not Protestant
    • Not English-speaking
    • Not skilled
    • Not educated
    • Not liked. 
living conditions in america not usually the american dream
Living Conditions in America – not usually the American Dream
  • Filthy, dirty, diseases spread, cramped
  • Gambling, drinking, etc.
  • Ethnic Neighborhoods
  • “Ghetto” – Italian word for describing Jewish section, being trapped in at night by an Iron gate
  • Immigrants TRAPPED in to this lifestyle
tenement housing and ethnic neighborhoods
Tenement Housing and Ethnic Neighborhoods
  • Tenement Housing: poor, rundown housing where many families lived in small, cramped conditions in the big cities
  • Ethnic Neighborhoods:
    • Helped embrace New World hardships
    • Continuation of OLD WORLD customs that weren’t as accepted in mainstream USA
ellis island and angel island
Ellis Island and Angel Island
  • Ellis Island, NY
  • 1892 – immigration station
  • 112 million immigrants would pass through Ellis Island
  • Immigrants held for SICKNESS, tests of mental ability
  • Angel Island, CA
  • Chinese detained for weeks (Chinese Exclusion Act)
    • Prisonlike conditions
    • Accused of being SICK more often than European immigrants
  • Feeling of hatred towards those not “American”
the irish
The Irish
  • Settled in New York (too poor to travel)
  • Discriminated against
  • Poor living conditions (80% of Irish infants died in New York)
  • Took the jobs no one wanted
  • "Let Negroes be servants, and if not Negroes, let Irishmen fill their place..."
  • With the arrival of Eastern Europeans the Irish were no longer lowest class
  • Became policemen & firemen
anti chinese nativism
Anti-Chinese Nativism

Anti-Chinese immigrant feelings:

  • Chinese FLOODED to the U.S. after 1850s (100,000)
  • Chinese labor essential to American West

industrialization (railroads)

  • ONCE projects were done they were NOT needed anymore
  • Nativists backlash against Chinese was widespread
    • They LOOKED different
    • Language, customs, etc were different
chinese exclusion act
Chinese Exclusion Act
  • First Immigration law to ban a certain RACE of people from coming to America
  • 1884 - 1943
immigration laws
Immigration Laws
  • 1790 → Naturalization rule establishes →a two-year residency requirement for immigrants wanting to become U.S. citizens.
  • 1875 → No convicts or prostitutes.
  • 1882 → Immigration from China is curtailed; ex-convicts, lunatics, idiots, and those unable to take care of themselves are excluded. A tax (50 cents) must be paid by immigrants.
  • 1892→ Ellis Island opens.
  • 1903 → No political radicals, epileptics, professional beggars.
  • 1907 → No feeble-minded, tuberculars, persons with physical or mental defects, and persons under age 16 without parents. Tax on new immigrants is increased ($8).
  • 1910 → No criminals, paupers, diseased.
  • 1917 → Immigrants over 16 years old must pass literacy exam.
immigration laws31
Immigration Laws
  • 1917 → Immigrants over 16 years old must pass literacy exam
  • 1924 → immigration limited to 165,000 annually.
  • The nationality quota is revised to 2% of each nationality's representation
more recent immigration
More Recent Immigration
  • Cuba → 1950’s – settled mainly in Florida
  • South America → Legal/Illegal immigrants → California
  • Asia
melting pot vs salad bowl
Melting Pot vs Salad Bowl
  • Melting Pot→All immigrants mixed together form the ”American”
  • Salad Bowl →All immigrants are American, yet keep their cultural heritage from their ”home”