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U.S. Immigration: History and Current Issues . Senior Capstone Ryan Rice. Overview . Breakdown of history of U.S. Immigration by eras: Open-Door Door-Ajar Pet-Door Revolving-Door Storm-Door Including Important Legislation and Court Cases. Overview .

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Presentation Transcript
overview
Overview
  • Breakdown of history of U.S. Immigration by eras:

Open-Door

Door-Ajar

Pet-Door

Revolving-Door

Storm-Door

  • Including Important Legislation and Court Cases
overview3
Overview
  • Following Historical Breakdown:
  • Look at current societal impacts of immigration both legal and illegal.

Assimilation

Economics

Bilingualism

Multiculturalism

National Security

open door era
Open-Door Era
  • Founding of the United States until 1880.
  • Immigration= Relatively Easy and Encouraged.
  • “Old-Wave” Immigrants primarily from Northwest Europe.
  • 1789 Article 1, Section 8 grants Congress power “To Establish a Uniform Rule of Naturalization”
open door era5
Open-Door Era
  • Naturalization Act of 1790 – First official act.

Two-year residency requirement

  • Revised in 1802 – Extended to five years
  • Became the Five-Year Residency Act in 1813
  • 1819 – Began documenting all immigrants as the left their ship
open door era6
Open-Door Era
  • 1848 - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – Citizenship to those remaining in Territory cede by Mexico
  • Two Waves: 1845-1854 and 1865-1875

First- Predominantly Irish and German

Second – Included British and

Scandinavian

open door era7
Open-Door Era
  • 1862 – Homestead Act
  • 1868 – Ratification of the 14th Amendment
  • 1870 – Citizenship granted to those of African decent
  • 1 million immigrants per year = 13% foreign born
  • Gave rise to fear and anxiety in native-born
door ajar era
Door-Ajar Era
  • Began in 1880 and lasted 1920
  • Rate of 1 million per year continued
  • Shift to South, Central and Eastern Europe
  • Know-Nothings and Ku Klux Klan led restrictionist attitude.
door ajar era9
Door-Ajar Era
  • 1882 – Chinese Exclusion Act – First piece of legislation aimed at a particular race or nationality.

Virtually stopped Chinese immigration

ten years.

  • Reenacted in 1888, 1892 and 1904
door ajar era11
Door-Ajar Era
  • 1885 – Foran Act – illegal to fund immigration of others.
  • 1888 – Scott Act – extended Chinese Exclusion act ten years/ barred return.
  • 1889 – Chae Chan Ping v. United States upheld Scott Act.
door ajar era12
Door-Ajar Era
  • 1892 – Ellis Island
  • 1894 – Bureau of Immigration
  • 1898 – Wong Kim Ark v. United States:

Native born are eligible for nat.

even if parents are not.

  • 1907 – Dillingham Commission: Led to the quota acts of the 1920s
pet door era
Pet-Door Era
  • The Pet-Door Era – 1920-1965
  • Pro-restrictionist groups pushed for quota acts: 1921, 1924, 1929
  • Immigration shifted back to Northwest Europe.
  • Era of restrictive legislation
pet door era quota acts
Pet-Door Era: Quota Acts
  • 1921 – 3% of pop. Of a country as of 1910 census.

only 4 million entered from 1920-1930

  • 1924 – Johnson-Reed Act – 2% of pop. Of a country as of 1890 census.

Brought about shift back to Northwest Europe

Barred most Asians – “aliens ineligible for citizenship”

  • 1929 – proportion of pop. Or of each nationality for 1920 census.

Only 150,000 admitted.

pet door era16
Pet-Door Era
  • 1922 – Cable Act – women can become naturalized unless married to ineligible alien.
  • Labor Appropriations Act of 1924 Established the U.S. Border Patrol
great depression
Great Depression
  • Immigration slowed dramatically between 1929 and 1939
  • 1940 – End of Depression – Congress passed Registration Law and Nationality Act

Required all citizens to register address

annually.

Consolidated all naturalization policy into one Act.

pet door era18
Pet-Door Era
  • 1942 – Executive Order 9066 – Japanese Americans to relocation camps.
  • 1943 – Hirabayashi v. United States upheld “military necessity”
  • 1944 – Korematsu v. United States allowed for excluded zones
  • 1952 – Immigration and Naturalization Act removed racial and national-origin barrier.
revolving door era
Revolving-Door Era
  • Began with the Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965
  • Replaced quota system with preference system
  • Immigration in the following decade was up 60%
  • Act was amended in 1966 to allow for more refugees
revolving door era20
Revolving-Door Era
  • 1967 Afroyim v. Rusk – Dual Citizenship
  • 1970s – concerns over immigrants entering illegally
  • 5.4 million immigrants entered
  • 1978 – Pres. Carter – Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy

Recommended closing backdoor and opening front door.

revolving door era21
Revolving-Door Era
  • 1980 Refugee Act
  • 1986 – Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA)
  • Immigration Act of 1990 (IMMACT)

Culmination of IRCA and SCIRP

  • 1993 - NAFTA
revolving door era22
Revolving-Door Era
  • California passed Proposition 187

Claimed Illegal immigration was a financial burden

  • LULAC et al. v. Pete Wilson et al. – declared 187 unconstitutional
  • 1996 – Illegal Immigrant Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA)
storm door era
Storm-Door Era
  • Began in 2001 as a result of 9/11 terrorist attacks
  • 2001 – USA Patriot Act
  • 2002 – INS is abolished and duties granted to Department of Homeland Security
  • 2005 – USA Patriot Act Improvements and Reauthorization Act
current immigration issues
Current Immigration Issues
  • Assimilation
  • Economics
  • Bilingualism
  • Multiculturalism
  • National Security
assimilation
Assimilation
  • 1st step – Naturalization process
  • Pre-1970s – Strong pressures on immigrants to assimilate into the culture
  • Large numbers – fear that immigrants would not form emotional attachment to new country
assimilation26
Assimilation
  • Assimilate by acquiring skills
  • Naturalization – more job opportunities
  • Proponents: Immigrants have no problem assimilating
  • Age is greatest distinguishing factor
economics
Economics
  • Pros:

more workers create more wealth

provide basis for S. Security and Medicare

most still pay income and property taxes

benefit from brain-drain of other nations

economics28
Economics
  • Cons:

Immigrant wages are decreasing

Create a strain on taxpayers and government

Tax burden in most states: couple hundred $/yr

bilingualism
Bilingualism
  • Economic and Ideological detriment
  • Single language unifies incredible diversity
  • Multiple languages are inefficient
  • Argument for: too many Americans are illiterate anyway
multiculturalism
Multiculturalism
  • Distinct Culture Groups
  • Organizational and Conceptual Borders
  • Maintain ties to home country, thus no true American identity
  • Proponents: Proportion has remained stable over the years
national security
National Security
  • Major Concern recently – Became important in 1920s
  • 7,000 miles of border
  • Department of Homeland Security

Struggle until recently

Advances in transportation security

Creative thinking to prevent attacks

summary and review
Summary and Review
  • Five Eras of Immigration: Open-Door, Door Ajar, Pet-Door, Revolving-Door, Storm-Door
  • Immigration: history of legislation
  • Current Issues: Assimilation, Economics, Bilingualism, Multiculturalism, and National Security
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