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U.S. Immigration: History and Current Issues . Senior Capstone Ryan Rice. Overview . Breakdown of history of U.S. Immigration by eras: Open-Door Door-Ajar Pet-Door Revolving-Door Storm-Door Including Important Legislation and Court Cases. Overview .

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U.S. Immigration: History and Current Issues


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. U.S. Immigration: History and Current Issues Senior Capstone Ryan Rice

    2. Overview • Breakdown of history of U.S. Immigration by eras: Open-Door Door-Ajar Pet-Door Revolving-Door Storm-Door • Including Important Legislation and Court Cases

    3. Overview • Following Historical Breakdown: • Look at current societal impacts of immigration both legal and illegal. Assimilation Economics Bilingualism Multiculturalism National Security

    4. Open-Door Era • Founding of the United States until 1880. • Immigration= Relatively Easy and Encouraged. • “Old-Wave” Immigrants primarily from Northwest Europe. • 1789 Article 1, Section 8 grants Congress power “To Establish a Uniform Rule of Naturalization”

    5. Open-Door Era • Naturalization Act of 1790 – First official act. Two-year residency requirement • Revised in 1802 – Extended to five years • Became the Five-Year Residency Act in 1813 • 1819 – Began documenting all immigrants as the left their ship

    6. Open-Door Era • 1848 - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – Citizenship to those remaining in Territory cede by Mexico • Two Waves: 1845-1854 and 1865-1875 First- Predominantly Irish and German Second – Included British and Scandinavian

    7. Open-Door Era • 1862 – Homestead Act • 1868 – Ratification of the 14th Amendment • 1870 – Citizenship granted to those of African decent • 1 million immigrants per year = 13% foreign born • Gave rise to fear and anxiety in native-born

    8. Door-Ajar Era • Began in 1880 and lasted 1920 • Rate of 1 million per year continued • Shift to South, Central and Eastern Europe • Know-Nothings and Ku Klux Klan led restrictionist attitude.

    9. Door-Ajar Era • 1882 – Chinese Exclusion Act – First piece of legislation aimed at a particular race or nationality. Virtually stopped Chinese immigration ten years. • Reenacted in 1888, 1892 and 1904

    10. Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882

    11. Door-Ajar Era • 1885 – Foran Act – illegal to fund immigration of others. • 1888 – Scott Act – extended Chinese Exclusion act ten years/ barred return. • 1889 – Chae Chan Ping v. United States upheld Scott Act.

    12. Door-Ajar Era • 1892 – Ellis Island • 1894 – Bureau of Immigration • 1898 – Wong Kim Ark v. United States: Native born are eligible for nat. even if parents are not. • 1907 – Dillingham Commission: Led to the quota acts of the 1920s

    13. Pet-Door Era • The Pet-Door Era – 1920-1965 • Pro-restrictionist groups pushed for quota acts: 1921, 1924, 1929 • Immigration shifted back to Northwest Europe. • Era of restrictive legislation

    14. Pet-Door Era: Quota Acts • 1921 – 3% of pop. Of a country as of 1910 census. only 4 million entered from 1920-1930 • 1924 – Johnson-Reed Act – 2% of pop. Of a country as of 1890 census. Brought about shift back to Northwest Europe Barred most Asians – “aliens ineligible for citizenship” • 1929 – proportion of pop. Or of each nationality for 1920 census. Only 150,000 admitted.

    15. Decrease in Immigration

    16. Pet-Door Era • 1922 – Cable Act – women can become naturalized unless married to ineligible alien. • Labor Appropriations Act of 1924 Established the U.S. Border Patrol

    17. Great Depression • Immigration slowed dramatically between 1929 and 1939 • 1940 – End of Depression – Congress passed Registration Law and Nationality Act Required all citizens to register address annually. Consolidated all naturalization policy into one Act.

    18. Pet-Door Era • 1942 – Executive Order 9066 – Japanese Americans to relocation camps. • 1943 – Hirabayashi v. United States upheld “military necessity” • 1944 – Korematsu v. United States allowed for excluded zones • 1952 – Immigration and Naturalization Act removed racial and national-origin barrier.

    19. Revolving-Door Era • Began with the Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965 • Replaced quota system with preference system • Immigration in the following decade was up 60% • Act was amended in 1966 to allow for more refugees

    20. Revolving-Door Era • 1967 Afroyim v. Rusk – Dual Citizenship • 1970s – concerns over immigrants entering illegally • 5.4 million immigrants entered • 1978 – Pres. Carter – Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy Recommended closing backdoor and opening front door.

    21. Revolving-Door Era • 1980 Refugee Act • 1986 – Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) • Immigration Act of 1990 (IMMACT) Culmination of IRCA and SCIRP • 1993 - NAFTA

    22. Revolving-Door Era • California passed Proposition 187 Claimed Illegal immigration was a financial burden • LULAC et al. v. Pete Wilson et al. – declared 187 unconstitutional • 1996 – Illegal Immigrant Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA)

    23. Storm-Door Era • Began in 2001 as a result of 9/11 terrorist attacks • 2001 – USA Patriot Act • 2002 – INS is abolished and duties granted to Department of Homeland Security • 2005 – USA Patriot Act Improvements and Reauthorization Act

    24. Current Immigration Issues • Assimilation • Economics • Bilingualism • Multiculturalism • National Security

    25. Assimilation • 1st step – Naturalization process • Pre-1970s – Strong pressures on immigrants to assimilate into the culture • Large numbers – fear that immigrants would not form emotional attachment to new country

    26. Assimilation • Assimilate by acquiring skills • Naturalization – more job opportunities • Proponents: Immigrants have no problem assimilating • Age is greatest distinguishing factor

    27. Economics • Pros: more workers create more wealth provide basis for S. Security and Medicare most still pay income and property taxes benefit from brain-drain of other nations

    28. Economics • Cons: Immigrant wages are decreasing Create a strain on taxpayers and government Tax burden in most states: couple hundred $/yr

    29. Bilingualism • Economic and Ideological detriment • Single language unifies incredible diversity • Multiple languages are inefficient • Argument for: too many Americans are illiterate anyway

    30. Multiculturalism • Distinct Culture Groups • Organizational and Conceptual Borders • Maintain ties to home country, thus no true American identity • Proponents: Proportion has remained stable over the years

    31. National Security • Major Concern recently – Became important in 1920s • 7,000 miles of border • Department of Homeland Security Struggle until recently Advances in transportation security Creative thinking to prevent attacks

    32. Summary and Review • Five Eras of Immigration: Open-Door, Door Ajar, Pet-Door, Revolving-Door, Storm-Door • Immigration: history of legislation • Current Issues: Assimilation, Economics, Bilingualism, Multiculturalism, and National Security