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領導攸關組織的盛衰. 領導的本質. 定義:領導是一種「領導者」影響「追隨者」的歷程,在此歷程中,追隨者瞭解什麼該做以及如何去做,領導者藉此提升個人與團體的努力,進而達成共享的目標 領導與管理:一般而言,管理者乃指那些把事情做對的人 (efficiency) ,而領導者更是那些做「對的事情」的人 (effectiveness). Power: The Key to Leadership. 合法權力. Legitimate Power

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slide2
領導的本質
  • 定義:領導是一種「領導者」影響「追隨者」的歷程,在此歷程中,追隨者瞭解什麼該做以及如何去做,領導者藉此提升個人與團體的努力,進而達成共享的目標
  • 領導與管理:一般而言,管理者乃指那些把事情做對的人(efficiency),而領導者更是那些做「對的事情」的人(effectiveness)
power the key to leadership
Power: The Key to Leadership

合法權力

  • Legitimate Power
    • The authority that a manager has by virtue of his or her position in the firm.
      • Example: the power to hire or fire employees.
  • Reward Power
    • The ability of a manager to give or withhold tangible and intangible rewards.
      • Example: awarding pay raises or providing verbal praise for good performance.
    • Effective managers use reward power to signal to employees that they are doing a good job.

獎賞、資源掌控權力

power the key to leadership cont d
Power: The Key to Leadership (cont’d)

懲罰、強制權力

  • Coercive Power
    • The ability of a manager to punish others.
      • Examples: verbal reprimand, pay cut, and dismissal.
      • Is limited in effectiveness and application; can have serious negative side effects.
  • Expert Power
    • Power that is based on special knowledge, skills, and expertise that the leader possesses.
      • First-line and middle managers have the most expert power; usually is technical ability.

專家權威

power the key to leadership cont d5
Power: The Key to Leadership (cont’d)

德高望重之威嚴

  • Referent Power
    • Power that comes from subordinates’ and coworkers’ respect for the personal characteristics of a leader who has earned their loyalty and admiration.
    • Usually held by and available for use by likable managers who are concerned about their workers.
  • 論語學而篇,子曰:「君子不重,則不威,學則不固。主忠信,無友不如己者,過則勿憚改。」
  • 論語子張篇,子夏曰:「君子有三變:望之儼然,即之溫也,聽其言也厲。」
slide6
西方領導理論
  • 特質理論 (trait theory)
  • 行為理論 (behavior theory)
  • 權變理論 (contingency theory)
  • 整合理論與跨文化研究(integrative theory & cross-cultural research)
slide7
特質理論
  • 有系統地去觀察領導者的「身體特性」 、「性格」及「能力」特性,來瞭解領導的本質。
  • Stogdill: 智力、支配性、自信、精力及工作知識等5種性格特質在大部分研究中都與領導有密切相關,但以特質解釋或預測領導效能的正確性並不高。(相關係數不高)
other traits related to effective leadership
Other traits related to effective leadership
  • Skills of leadership
    • Katz: conceptual/ interpersonal relationship/ technical abilities
    • Yukl: creativity/organizing/persuasion/ interpersonal & social relationship
slide9
行為理論
  • 將有效領導(effective leadership)的焦點轉移到領導者所經常「表現」的行為上,並嘗試找出抽象但是可以描述的行為特性
  • 俄亥俄州立大學的領導研究
    • 主動結構(initiating)
      • 特徵是指導成員從事特定任務、期望工作維持一定水準以及強調達到工作期限的要求
    • 體恤(consideration)
      • 特徵是注重與部屬的關係、尊重部屬意見及關心部屬福利
  • 密西根大學的領導研究
    • 生產導向(production oriented)
    • 員工導向(employee oriented)

Higher performance

by blake mouton
管理方格(by Blake & Mouton)

Types of leader: insignificantly related to effective performance

slide11
權變理論-領導者與「情境」的互動
  • Fiedler的權變模式
  • 在House的途徑目標論
  • 在Hersey & Blanchard的情境領導論
  • 在Graen & Cashman的領導者—部屬交換理論
  • 在Kerr & Jermier的領導取代論
fiedler
Fiedler的權變模式
  • 團體績效決定於領導風格與情境有利程度之適當搭配,故要先對領導風格與領導情境分類,然後進一步確認兩者間的適配情況
  • 情境的有利程度是由三個變項所決定,依其重要性分別為「領導者與部屬」之間關係(好或壞)、「任務結構程度」 (高度確定性或低度)以及領導者之職權(position power)(強或弱)。依此三變項可組成八個不同有利程度的情境。
house s
House’s路徑目標理論
  • 由動機的期望理論基礎上發展出來,試圖說明領導者的行為對部屬之「動機」 、「工作滿意度」 、「工作績效」之影響
  • 與Fielder權變理論相異處:
    • 對領導風格有不同主張
    • 在領導風格是否可改變上也持不同立場
  • 本理論提出四種領導行為類型如下:
    • 指導型
    • 支持型
    • 參與型
    • 成就型
slide15
路徑目標理論之架構

Contingencies about employee

situational leadership theory by hersey blanchard
情境領導理論(situational leadership theory by Hersey & Blanchard )
  • 該理論反映了「生命週期模式」觀點,他們認為領導者與部屬的關係猶如親子關係
  • 把「部屬的成熟度」當作情境變項,而成熟度是由兩個因素所決定,即部屬的能力(ability)與意願(willingness)
  • 四種領導風格的說明與其適用情境詳述如下:
    • 告知型(telling): high task-oriented but low relationship-oriented
    • 推銷型(selling): high task-oriented and high relationship-oriented
    • 參與型(participating): low task-oriented but high relationship-oriented
    • 授權型(delegating): low task-oriented and low relationship-oriented
slide18
領導者—部屬交換理論
  • 領導者—部屬交換理論主張的情境變項最為特殊,因為該情境變項並非單獨由部屬特性所決定,而是由「領導者與部屬之間的互動品質」決定。
    • 關係的好壞差別對待
      • 好團體內;信任、支持、關注
      • 壞團體外;低交換報酬、低升遷機會
    • 但是,影響「交換關係品質」的因果實在不明。
slide19
領導替代理論
  • 有一些研究者並不滿意領導理論發展的現況,它們質疑領導的必要性。Kerr和 Jermier 認為領導行為在某些情境下是多餘或不必要的,甚至在某些情境下,領導反而會有反效果
    • Worker empowerment or self-managed work teams reduce leadership needs.
    • Managers should be aware that they do not always need to directly exert influence over workers.
      • Characteristics of the subordinates—their skills, experience, motivation. (by selective recruiting and training)
      • Characteristics of context—the extent to which work is interesting and fun. (by purposeful work design)
transformational leadership
Transformational Leadership
  • Leadership that:
    • Makes subordinates aware of the importance of their jobs and performance to the organization by providing feedback to the worker.
    • Makes subordinates aware of their own needs for personal growth and development.
    • Motivates workers to work for the good of the organization, not just themselves.
being a charismatic leader for corporate transformation
Being a Charismatic Leader for corporate transformation

Subordinated with honor

  • Charismatic Leader
    • An enthusiastic, self-confident transformational leader able to clearly communicate his or her vision of how good things could be by:
      • Being excited and clearly communicating excitement to subordinates.
      • Openly sharing information with employees so that everyone is aware of problems and the need for change.
      • Empowering workers to help with solutions.
      • Engaging in the development of employees by working hard to help them build skills.
slide22
願景式領導理論
  • 提出願景(vision)是魅力領導者的特徵之一,當領導者能創造並清楚表達願景,且該願景是實際、可信與充滿「吸引力」時,將會激發員工追求願景的熱情與動力
  • 願景式領導者通常具備三項技能:
    • 向他人「解釋」願景的能力
    • 以具體「行動」傳達願景的能力
    • 能夠把願景「延伸」到不同的領導情境中
slide23
領導理論的跨文化比較研究
  • 華人領導理論
    • 公私分明的行為
    • CPM: 個人品德(character)、工作績效(performance)、群體關係之維繫(maintenance)
    • 家長式領導:
      • 領導者: 德行、權威、仁慈、
      • 追隨者: 依賴順服、感恩圖報、尊敬認同